Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

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Introduction For children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), developing language was taken as a major goal (Lim & Draper, 2011; Lim, 2009; Paul, 2008; Prinzant & Wetherby, 2005; Sundberg & Michael, 2001) and music as a part of therapy was an accepted approach (Lim & Draper, 2011; Lim, 2010a; Adamek, Thaut & Furman, 2008; Kaplan & Steele, 2005; Buday 1995; Hoskins, 1998). Language was taken as behaviour; which was shaped via reinforcement (Barbera, 2007) and Applied Behaviour Analysis Verbal Behaviour (ABA VB) was used as a primary tool to enable a child to do so (Barbera, 2007; Sturmey & Fitzer, 2007). Verbal behaviour was broken into the following categories: mand (verbal operant [VO] controlled by a motivational variable such as deprivation or satisfaction where a request was made), tact (VO controlled by a non-verbal stimulus such as a picture where it was successfully labelled), echoic (VO of imitation) and intraverbal (VO controlled by verbal stimuli for conversation). Each VO was taken to have its own independent functional control (Sundberg & Michael, 2001), which is very important for pre-verbal children with language impairments who require training (Skinner, 1957; Sundberg & Michael, 2001). ABA VB exclusively utilised functional analysis of verbal behaviour (Lim & Draper, 2011; Barbera, 2007; Sundberg & Michael, 2001; Sundberg & Partington, 1998; Sturmey & Fitzer, 2007). Music has been used as a primary tool in ABA VB for communication treatment for people with
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