Chronic Kidney Disease : Diagnosis, Treatment, And Lifestyle

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Chronic Kidney Disease: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Lifestyle Recommendations

Janelle Giggey


Walden University

August 2, 2015

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a condition characterized by a gradual loss of kidney function over time (, 2015). Renal failure is a complex and challenging health issue that demands the involvement of both specialists and primary care providers (Buttaro, Trybulski, Polgar, Bailey, & Sandberg-Cook, 2013). In this paper I will discuss what chronic kidney disease is, how it is diagnosed, and what treatment options there are, as well as how potential patient factors can impact diagnosis and treatment of chronic kidney disease.
Chronic kidney disease can start slowly and worsen over time. Patients with a history of diabetes and hypertension are especially susceptible. According to the CDC, approximately 1 of 3 adults with diabetes and 1 of 5 adults with high blood pressure has chronic kidney disease. In addition to diabetes and high blood pressure, other conditions that increase the risk of kidney disease include heart disease, obesity, older age, high cholesterol, and a family history of chronic kidney disease (, 2015). The clinical presentation of CKD is often subtle and can go unnoticed with physical symptoms alone in those with mild CKD. Buttaro et. al., (2013) explains that symptoms are uncommon in those with a GFR above 35%. Once GFR falls below 35%, a variety of metabolic, psychiatric, hematologic,
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