Essay on Chronic Renal Failure

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Introduction Every human body contains one pair of kidneys. They are situated towards the back of the body under the ribs, just at the level of the waist, with one on each side of the body. Each kidney is composed of about one million units called nephrons, and each nephron consists of two parts: a filter, called the glomerulus and a tubule leading out from the nephrons (Cameron 1999). According to Marshall and Bangert (2008), the kidneys have three major functions: firstly, the kidneys excrete waste from plasma in the blood. Secondly, they maintain extracellular fluid volume and composition. Lastly, the kidneys play a role in hormone synthesis. There are many diseases that might infect the kidneys and affect their…show more content…
However, when the kidneys stop working completely, the situation known as end-stage renal failure (ESRF) occurs in CRF. Some diseases may cause CRF when patients are infected for a long time.

Diabetes Mellitus One of the diseases that can cause CRF is diabetes mellitus, a major cause of renal failure. This disease can be defined as an increase in fasting blood glucose as a result of a deficiency in insulin, which is a hormone. The normal range for glucose (fasting) in the blood is 2.8 - 6.0 mmol/L. Diabetes Mellitus is classified into two groups: type 1 (insulin-dependent) and type 2 (non insulin-dependent). The difference between them is that, in type 1, the body does not produce enough insulin, but in type 2 the body does not make effective use of this hormone. Stein (2008, p. 6) points out that kidney failure most often occurs when patients have suffered from diabetes mellitus for more than 10 years. According to a report by the U.S. Renal Data System (USRDS) in 2007, the cause of approximately 44% of renal failure in 2005 was diabetes mellitus. Stein (2008) also indicates that 15% of dialysis patients are influenced by diabetes mellitus in the United Kingdom. Diabetes mellitus has negative effects on the kidneys, where the increase in range of blood sugar causes damage to kidney cells, in particular the nephrons. This can
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