Background Cicero was one of the greatest orators in Ancient Rome. He was not of noble birth, but in 64 BCE became consul, one of the most powerful offices in the Roman Republic. Cicero's time as consul was difficult, and he successfully prevented an overthrow of the Republic and his own assassination. Once Julius Caesar began to amass more and more personal power, however, he receded from active politics because he believed the ideals of the Republic would be diffused with tyranny. Once Caesar was assassinated, Cicero again became popular but because of his dislike (public and private) of Mark Antony, as Antony's power grew, Cicero's diminished. He was killed in December 43 BCE after being declared an enemy of the Republic.
We are social creatures. We surround ourselves with other human beings, our friends. It is in our nature. We are constantly trying to broaden the circumference of our circle of friends. Aristotle understood the importance of friendship, books VIII and IX of the Nicomachean Ethics deal solely with this topic. A modern day definition of a friend can be defined as “one joined to another in intimacy and mutual benevolence independently of sexual or family love”. (Oxford English Dictionary). Aristotle’s view on friendship is much broader than this. His arguments are certainly not flawless. In this essay I will outline what Aristotle said about friendship in the Nichomachaen Ethics and highlight possible
I believe Cicero position in the discussion about friendship is stronger than Aristotle’s position because Cicero believes friendship exists between two people, he also went deep in talking about friendship, the limits of friendship, how loyalty is important in friendship, the way friendships get stronger and older, which is also talked about the golden rule of friendship which he stated in section nineteen “put yourself on a level with your friends”. He also talked about the cause of friendship which he stated in section eleven that a belief in a man’s virtue is the original cause of friendship that friendship can hardly remain if virtue be abandon. By this , he made me understand virtue
In his time, Aristotle wrote many works on different topics. In arguably one of his most popular works, Nicomachean Ethics, specifically in Book 8, he explores the virtue of friendship. He believes that there are three branches of friendship: that of utility (where two parties derive some benefit from each other), of pleasure (where two parties come together for the sake of pleasure received) and that of the good (where two parties of similar good virtues come together, admire one another for it and help each other strive for more goodness). The last of these types is of the highest form, with Aristotle describing it to be ‘perfect’. It is also naturally permanent unlike the other two, because these friends are not concerned about any other external factor outside of the other’s personality and virtues.
Relying on hostile evidence to recreate Marcus Antonius’ life from his youth until the Battle of Actium entrains several issues. This essay will discuss Virgil’s Latin epic ‘The Aeneid’, a kind of propaganda, Cicero’s ‘Second Philippic’ a piece written with personal and political intentions in mind, and Plutarch’s Rome in Crisis regarding Antony. One must treat these sources with caution, not least because of the inherent bias present in their writing. It is necessary to take into account the context, type of source and how the author has shaped material for their own personal or political gain. Limitations.
Aristotle once said, “Friendship is a single soul dwelling in two bodies.” There are many things that go into the process of friendship. Some people deal with friendship one way while others deal with it in another way. Cicero had a lot to say about the different aspects of friendship in his time, but how would he view modern friendship? Some friendships Cicero may not be proud of; like the common relationships that are forced on in a classroom or work place and the lack of allowing nature to take control and make the friendships that are meant to happen. However, Cicero would be happy with the way the higher level friendships have developed in virtue
This point goes with what was previously stated, Cicero encourages doing things together and allowing a friend to help. He also encourages interference with a friend’s hardships or needs. In section 73, Cicero answers the question, how much should we aid our friends? His answer is, “We must give them only such aid as is within our powers; second, only as much as the man we love and wish to help can himself sustain” (Cicero 77). Cicero definitely believes we should get involved with our friend’s issues but to a certain extent. As long as we can handle the amount of aid given and they can sustain the amount given. Cicero does not believe friends should help with every little issue but he would say that they should help with the larger issues that we cannot handle ourselves.
The beginning of Book eight of the Nicomachean Ethics states that friendship is a “kind of virtue and it is also most necessary for living” (Book VIII, 1155a, 1-2). Friendships connect to all walks of life, with friends we can help young from making mistakes and assist the elderly in life through their delicate state they cannot do themselves. The most significant power friendship has is the ability to hold communities and how it’s closely connected to justice (Book VIII, 1155a, 20-26). Which is interesting because it seems that by human nature we strive for the sense of harmony in a community. We aim for happiness between community members and happiness as a whole. Aristotle later comments that a possession of many friends are one of the fine things of life and it is a splendid thing to obtain.
Following the political defeat of Catiline, Cicero started giving speeches about the Catiline Conspiracy in October of 63 BCE. Cicero realized Catiline was backed by commoners, so to combat this, Cicero’s first speech was aimed at calling out Catiline for his conspiracy. It is important to take into consideration that this story is completely one sided from Cicero’s point of view. Catiline’s arguments, for the most part, have been lost in history. With this in mind, Cicero announced to the senate that Catiline “…watches and notes and marks down with his gaze each one of us he plots to assassinate” (Cicero, 76). Instead of sentencing Catiline to death, he demands that Catiline leave the city. In doing this, he claims that Catiline’s
According to Aristotle, one can experience three different types of friendship. The first type is a friend who is used for utilitarian purposes. Aristotle, however, quickly dismisses this type. As an example, Aristotle explains that one could never be friends with wine; while wine is satisfying to the person drinking the wine, no person ever wishes wine good fortune (Aristotle, 32). In order for a relationship between two people to be considered a friendship, one must want good things for the person who they consider their friend and vice versa (Aristotle, 32). Aristotle continues to describe another type of friendship, which is friendship for pleasure. According to Aristotle, young adults are most likely to pursue pleasure-related friendships, because the young are more likely to live to please their emotions; they develop friendships and erotic relationships quickly (Aristotle, 33). Aristotle notes that since young people make decisions based on their emotions, they are quick to change passions, friendships, and lovers (Aristotle, 33). Although both parties receive equal pleasure in this type of friendship, Aristotle says that it is not a complete type of friendship because it is short-lasting (Aristotle, 33). Aristotle considers only one type of friendship to be complete, and that is friendship that is devoted to the other person’s virtue. This type of friendship, Aristotle says, is a friendship that is developed slowly and infrequently; this is the only type of
Aristotle states that the “proper function of man consists in an activity of the soul in conformity with a rational principle, or, at least, not without it” (Page 17 1098a ll. 3-5). The proper function of man is needed to understand happiness. In this understanding, Aristotle explains that happiness is the highest good one could wish to achieve through human function. Aristotle states “a happy man lives well and fares well”(Page 19 1098b ll. 20-22). This allows the reader to begin questioning what the necessities are in order for one to fare well. One answer to this question may be in regard to friendship. Aristotle asserts that friendship is the greatest external good. According to Aristotle, it is possible to say that a friendless man is able to fare well because “supremely happy and self-sufficient people do not need friends”(Page 263 1169b ll. 2-3). However, “happiness, as we have said, needs external goods as well.” (Page 21 1099a ll. 32-33) With this being said, it can be determined that a friendless man cannot achieve supreme happiness, because, while he may be self sufficient, he is unable to perform acts of good for friends.
I am Marcus Tullius Cicero, born on January sixth, 106 BC. I am a patrician and I worked extremely hard to become one. My family wasn’t very wealthy so I had to work my way up through the rankings. I did this by advancing in government. I had to make good decisions so people voted for me to become a politician of a higher ranking. I started out as a low ranked magistrate and slowly worked my way up to become a part of the senate. As a politician, with the different rankings, you have different responsibilities. My position as a senator requires me to give advice, control finances, and elect consuls. There are other responsibilities too, but those are the main responsibilities I have (“Marcus Tullius Cicero”).
Concepts and ideas of the United States’ political system is shaped by how Ancient Romans viewed and interpreted justice in society. Roman philosophers and politicians influenced the Founders of the United States and shaped our political and justice system. The Roman concept of justice plays a large and important role in the way Americans view and perceive justice. Justice, interpreted by Sellers, Livy, Aurelius, Foucalt, and Sallust all influence and inform Americans’ belief of the relationship between justice and politics.
Firstly, a friend will always be there during your worst. For example, in the book “All Quiet on the Western Front.” Paul stays in medical care with his friend, Kemmerich, until he passes (Remarque). Thus, Paul was being a true friend by staying by Kemmerich’s side until death. Secondly, you can even be friendly to absolute strangers. For instance, in the book “All Quiet on the Western Front,” after Paul’s leave, he gave the Russian prisoners cakes (Remarque). Therefore, Paul felt bad for the prisoners, which showed friendship. Thirdly, even in war the enemies can show friendship. Case in point, in the movie “Flyboys,” during war a German airman had the change to kill Blaine but, he did not do it because Blaine’s gun was not working (Flyboys). Accordingly, it is okay to show friendship every now and again. As you can see, friendship brings out the respect and care in
Within book 8 and 9 of Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics, he concludes that an excellent friendship is the most choice-worthy good an individual can externally attain (Aristotle 149, 1170a, section 7). However, in chapter 3 of book 8, Aristotle asserts the finest friendships are enduring insofar the individuals are good, and the virtues remain similar. However, his proposal about the similarities of virtues doesn't seem entirely correct since people gradually change over time, but the relationship can continue to be good and the individuals remain close friends. Aristotle would assert that if the virtuous character of the friend were to change, the friendship could potentially dissolve; unless the agent can return their friend to their original state of similarity. This is because his assertion about an enduring friendship requires that the individuals are both good and similar in virtuous behaviour. Nevertheless, this essay aims to argue that friendships are enduring through the means of gaining/building a state of mutual confidence in our friend, rather individuals being similar in virtue.