In her article, “Review of Stanley Milgram’s Experiments on Obedience”, psychologist Diana Baumrind criticizes Stanley Milgram’s experiments on obedience to authority, stating that not only were Milgram’s experiments unethical but so was the scientist himself, claiming that he did not take appropriate measures to properly ensure his subject’s wellbeing post-experiment and therefore, experiments such as these should not be repeated. Baumrind does address an important point in her review and that is the responsibility of psychologists to ensure that their subjects are treated fairly and ethically but this is overshadowed by the fact that Baumrind’s argument is one rooted in pathos with little evidence to support her claims while being
Philip (2009) to try and see what was being said about prison treatment was true, this was called the Stanford prison experiment. This experiment only lasted 6 days due to the circumstances versus 6 weeks. Zimbardo had to find out whether the prisons were brutal due to the guards or due to the environment. It was clear that the role of the guards was the issue and not the environment. This was discovered when a sample was chosen from the population. Each induvial was set up to be a guard or a prisoner at random. In this study researchers got see the unfortunate power of social situations. Once prisoner and guard roles were assigned each group were told that they were being watched by the researcher and his colleagues, the guards were to not hit the prisoners, and debriefed about the experiment. Although all this was told the guards took situations into their own hands and the power took over. The guards began simply viewing them as prisoners and the prisoners began to fear the guards. It is important to note the researcher did not intervene but continued to observe when the hitting was taking place. This is particularly important because not only are the guards fitting the rod but the researcher is at fault for the fundamental attribution error but viewing the situation for what it
The article “The Dark Triad and sexual harassment proclivity” consists of research that concerns the importance of individuals with tendencies that engage in sexual behaviors. It’s unfortunate that sexual harassment is even prevalent at such a high rate within our society. Moreover, it state that “44% of female and 19% of male federal employees report that they have been sexually harassed at work (United States Merit Systems protection Board, 1995). Consequently, there are results of sexual harassment within the job sector such as lack of job employment, lack of adjustment after the situations, and the like. Therefore, according to the article, researchers began to expand their understanding of sexual harassment and the causes of behavior that promote sexual harassment. More specifically, this article states “…Previous research has established that these traits are connected with aspects of sexual aggression (e.g. Figueredo, Gladden, Sisco, Patch, & Jones, 2015, Jones & Olderbak, 2014).
Every decision a person makes is based on some level of certainty, whether low or high. Certainty and doubt do not exist as opposites. The two ideas are based on level of belief, either low, in the case of doubt, or high, in the case of certainty. They exist as equals, both being able to lead to failure and success. One is not inherently better than the other; they both have the ability to lead to wild success or unfortunate defeat. To be either certain or doubtful, a person must have a strong belief about a subject; what that belief is does not matter as much as whether that belief is correct or inaccurate. Because they exist as equals, a decision between the two should stem from how strong the evidence is for each, and the strongest of this
This stems from the stereotypes concerning male sex roles, sexual motivation, and sexual functioning. In our society, sexual assault is a major social problem and researchers are beginning to delve more into the topic. This is because there are significant psychological problems that happen after an assault. One problem is that not much scientific research has been done that has been attentive to male victims and their needs. The researchers hypothesized that a male victim of female sexual assault would be judged as more likely to have encouraged or initiated the assault, less likely to be able to be forced to have sex, more likely to have enjoyed the interaction because of the physical reaction, and less likely to experience high stress from the event.
The words “certainty” and “doubt” have many varying connotations and implications given a specific context. Even though the definitions of these two words are considered polar opposites of each other, there is one connection between the two that is undeniable: both certainty and doubt can be taken with a grain of salt, as they are all merely just opinions specific to the person that those concepts are presented to. Adding on to that, there is also a concept relating to this; the idea that there is always “the certainty of doubt” and that they are merely two sides of the same coin.
“ Case screening is the gateway to the criminal justice system. Prosecutors, acting as gatekeepers, decide which instances of alleged victimization will be passed on for adjudication by the courts” (Frohmann, 1991, p. 213). As Supreme Court Justice Jackson acknowledged in 1940, “the prosecutor has more control over life, liberty, and reputation than any other person in America” (Davis, 1969, p.190). Frohmann examined the powerful discretion prosecutors have in their justification for sexual assault case rejections in her research article, Discrediting Victim’s allegations of Sexual Assault: Prosecutorial Accounts of Case Rejections. Her research was replicated
As dozens of participants seen and experience some of the abuse and its effects and said nothing as Zimbardo stated (Zimbardo, p. 130). If one of his colleagues hadn’t been dropped by and saw what was happening the experiment would have continued and many people would have lost their mind (Zimbardo, p. 131). The experiments consist of 24 participants, the volunteers were randomly delegated to play the role of prisoner or guard in a setting made to take a sense of the psychology of imprisonment. Zimbardo infused dramatic realism in the study. The “prisoners” were given identity numbers, stripped naked and saturated. While the guards had to wear that looks similar to a prison guard. (Zimbardo, p. 129). Ethics committees at universities have put an end to these types of an experiment for the reason of potential danger to participants (Zimbardo, p.
Moreover, actions may be severe or pervasive when it damages the victim’s psychological well being or is highly humiliating. However, not all of those arguments successfully demonstrate hostile environment as sexual harassment or sex discrimination. More specifically, the encouragement to perform certain gender stereotypes as well as the composition of comments or behavior containing sexual content or connotations, are not successful arguments. Justice Scalia explained in the case of Oncale v. Sundower Offshore Services that one must not inaccurately perceive ordinary socializing in the workforce as sexual harassment. Sexual harassment, explained Justice Scalia, can consist of intersexual flirtation. Therefore, a person which makes a sexually composed remark, not sufficiently severe or pervasive as to damage one’s psychological health, but instead only to be coquettish,, is not consequentially an offender of sexual harassment. In order for the sexually composed remarks to be considered sexual harassment is if the remarks are explicitly proposals to undertake in sexual activities. Furthermore, as Justice Souter explained in Faragher v. City of Boca Raton, in order for sexually composed remarks to be considered sexual harassment such remarks must be extremely serious. Justice Souter classifies remarks not extremely serious as merely teasing the alleged
The study analyzed in the article also demonstrated that there is, indeed, a strong relationship between benevolent sexists and acquaintance rape victims. The majority of
In Redd v. New York State Division of Parole, the Court ruled that a female employee had a viable claim for hostile environment sexual harassment. The employee accused her supervisor of homosexual advances when she repeatedly touched the employees the breasts. Initially, her complaint was dismissed on the grounds that the touching was minor and incidental and had occurred because of the plaintiff’s sex. The appeal court reversed the decision holding that, “with respect to a hostile work environment claim, there must be pervasive acts that create an abusive working environment. The record showed that there were a number of incidents that could lead a reasonable jury to infer sexual harassment” (“Second Circuit”,
Many of the research methods for which the research we have reviewed is classified as either exploratory or constructive. Rape culture, victim blaming, and rape myths encompass more gray areas (uncertainties) than mere black (wrong) and white (right) understandings. As few of the studies specifically sought to gain insight in what is considered consent, therefore they exploratory research wanting to purely define and identify the miscommunication and mixed opinions of interpretations of consent, as they consider this to be a root to the problem of rape (16p.907)(8p.470)(19p.518). A couple other studies we found went a different route and chose to test theories they had relating to rape and then went on to propose solutions
In the study of psychology the infamous Professor Philip Zimbardo’s Stanford Prison experiment is something anyone has taken a psychology course is familiar with. The experiment was done to show that “normal” people could in fact act in awful ways if under certain circumstances. This experiment required the study of young males. An ad was placed in the Palo Alto Times and soon 70 guys had responded to the ad. Of the 70, twelve were finally selected after going through a series of psychological tests. Nine of these individuals were arrested at their homes on the morning of August 17, 1971. The other three were assigned roles such as guards. After roles were assigned Zimbardo told the “officers” to keep the inmates under control without using
They also noted that, in the vast majority of studies, male facilities have been found to have higher rates of sexual assault compared to female facilities and that younger inmates are at a greater risk of sexual victimization, particularly if they are new arrivals to a facility or if they are serving their first convictions. They also found that inmate-on-inmate sexual victimization has an interracial bias, with victim’s most likely being White and sexual aggressors most likely being Black (Nancy