Construct, Internal, and External Validity Essay

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Construct validity has to do with establishing correct operational measures for the concepts being studied (Yin 2009, p. 40). Yin (2009), writes that researchers can improve construct validity construct validity can be if multiple sources of data is employed (triangulation of data), establishing chain of evidence, and reviewing the report with their informants (p. 41). In making sure that one can draw a meaning and useful inferences from scores on particular instruments of data collection and to demonstrate the accuracy of their findings, Creswell (2013) also advice the use of member checking and triangulating data (p. 201). Quarm (2009) and Sarquah (2008) both used several data sources (interviews, documents, media, and internet) in…show more content…
Both studies are said to be exploratory in nature. For example, Quarm (2009) study seek to describe the main actors and the strategies they employed to push the domestic violence bill onto the government agenda for attention whereas Sarquah (2008) study seek to describe the main factors affecting the implementation of the fiscal decentralization policy in Akuapem South district of Ghana.

8.3 External Validity
Yin (2009) defines external validity as establishing the domain to which a study’s findings can be generalized beyond the immediate case study (p.40). It has to do with replication of results; generalization occurs when the same procedures are used by another researcher, the same results will be produced. Two types of generalizations have been identified by Yin (2009); these are “statistical generalization” which rely on sample survey data) and “analytical generalization”, which comes from case studies like experiments (p.43). In analytical generalization researchers try to generalize a set of findings to some broader theory (ibid). Both Quarm (2009) and Sarquah (2008) aimed at making analytical generalization hence both used theories in their single-case studies. Quarm (2009) study is analytically generalizable to models of agenda setting of domestic violence law in Ghana with respect to NGOs but not the agenda setting of other policies in Ghana. Sarquah (2008) findings in similar way can on be generalized to theories of
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