Contexts Dependent Approach For Participation

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1. Contexts-dependent approach for participation
André et al. (2006) recommends the EIA process should be supportive to participants, well planned and focused on negotiable issues. These principles are more critical when dealing with the local communities in which the major projects would take place, as it will impact their livelihoods and their socio-cultural circumstances. Therefore, the participation of local communities during EIA should take into account their local values beyond the factual evidence (Bond et al. 2004, p.622).
Engaging local communities in EIA must be context-oriented, open and transparent in order to achieve real outcomes (André et al., 2006, p. 3). Context-oriented approach must be emphasized because many communities, especially within the diverse country like Indonesia, have their own rules, culture and social norms to environment protections. Thus, EIA process must be adapted into the social-cultural contexts of impacted communities (André et al., 2006, p. 3). These circumstances would mean that culturally appropriate methods must be used. This is also the case for EIA involving local indigenous population, as maintains by several authors that the current EIA do not engage indigenous communities meaningfully (O’Fairchaellaigh, 2009; Aslin et al. 2013). The latest controversy can also be found in the Benoa Bay Project in Bali Province, where the EIA process neglects the local wisdom and not culturally sensitive by design (Nurhayati 2013; Langenheim
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