Country Reports : Bolivia, Bolivia

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Country Reports: Bolivia
Bolivia, named after the Venezuelan military leader Simόn Bolίvar, for most of its political history has been in a state of fluctuation. It came under Spanish rule in the 1500s and did not gain independence until 1825. It was not until the end of the Revolutionary Nationalist Movement in the late 1950s did the country transition into a military rule and only in the past few decades has it moved towards a democracy (or at least less military dictatorship-like) (Kohl 1978).
Originally Bolivia was ruled by the Aymara, who were an indigenous population in South America, until conquistadors conquered it in 1538 making it part of the “Vice-royalty of Peru” (BBC 2012). Mining dominated the economy after being conquered
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Eventually Napoleon went on to overthrow the Bourbon dynasty, which held a throne in Spain, and established a liberal constitution (Vanden & Prevost 2015). This liberal constitution is what helped other Latin American countries gain their independence (Tathagatan 2008). To honor their liberator, the people of Bolivia elected Bolίvar for life, but he only served for a few months. In the late 1820s, Bolivia came under the rule of José Antonio de Sucre, its first constitutionally elected president (Vanden & Prevost 2015). It was not long until he was removed from office and replaced with Andres de Santa Cruz, where stability was relatively restored and reforms were made.
However, it was only a few decades later that a military coup takes over, putting General Manuel Isidoro Belzứ in the presidential office (Vanden & Prevost 2015). But once again there was a coup and a civilian president, José María Linares Lizarazu, was put in place. Unlike his predecessors, he turned to authoritarian rule to diminish the chances of another coup. That did not work and he was shortly replaced with Mariano Melgarejo who’s “brutality and corruption earned him the epithet el caudillo bárbaro (a type of warlord) (Vanden & Prevost 2015). It was under his rule that the indigenous population began to disapear as he meticulously sold
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