In The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), the definition of PTSD is rather unusual in that it lists the etiology of the disorder. The DSM-III states: “the essential feature [of PTSD] is the development of characteristic symptoms following a psychologically traumatic event that is generally outside the range of usual human experience.” PTSD affects up to 20% of people who experience trauma. However, among people who are victims of a severe traumatic experience, 60 – 80% will develop PTSD. According to the Israel Trauma Center for Victims of Terror and War, “Every person has certain limits and it is almost certain that any person would develop PTSD if exposed to a sufficiently severe trauma.” There are three types of symptoms that must be present to diagnose PTSD. According to the DSM, “The first group requires that the veteran has intrusive thoughts about the event…nightmares or flashbacks in which the veteran feels like he…is reliving the event.” “The second group requires that the veteran avoids reminders of the trauma by either deliberately trying not to think about it, or avoids places and people that serve as reminders of it.” “The third group requires that the veteran experiences chronic physiological arousal as evidenced by difficulties sleeping, [or] outbursts.”
In this scenario, the independent variable is the type of treatment and the values are the treatment groups. The dependent variables are the patient’s measurable PTSD symptoms, including frequency of dissociative reactions, recurrent distressing dreams, negative alterations in cognitions and mood, and marked alterations in arousal and reactivity (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). The demographic variables in this study are age and ethnicity. The control variables are gender, geographic location, and PTSD.
Between February 2001 and April 2003, many were completed by approximately 9,282 Americans, 18 years of age or above, completed a survey that was conducted by The National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). According to The National Comorbidity Survey Replication study, 5,692 Americans were diagnosed with PTSD. However, this research used the DSM-4 criteria. It was estimated that the lifetime prevalence was about 6.8% for Americans in young adulthood. This was a jump from the previous year at 3.5%. The lifetime prevalence for women was higher, at 9.7%, than it was for men at 3.6%. “Kessler, R.C., Berglund, P., Delmer, O., Jin, R., Merikangas, K.R., & Walters, E.E. (2005).”
The first type of Treatment is called Cognitive behavioral therapy or CBT. Research says that this is the best type of treatment and counseling for anyone diagnosed with PTSD. Cognitive behavioral therapy is used to help the veteran think differently about their thoughts or feelings from the past. The main goal by the therapist is to help the veteran find out what past events or flashbacks correlate with the veteran’s thoughts that make the symptoms of PTSD occur. Many times, the veterans will blame themselves for a decision they made but the therapist will walk them through on how it was not their fault. Cognitive Behavioral therapy can last for three to six months. Although to some people it may seem that CBT might be the best type of treatment, it does not always work. One reason why it might not work is because the therapist may like the experience and education. The therapist may be qualified but sometimes, the therapist may fail at connecting with patient. The connection that is missed by some therapists and patients can simply occur by the therapist not having all the knowledge about all the situations soldiers face when they go to war. Soldiers struggle with their therapy if they feel that the therapist who is helping them does not have the knowledge about the battlefield or the difficulties of war itself. The relationship of the therapist and veteran can also play a major role on the effectiveness of the therapy. Some soldiers may struggle with feeling comfortable with their therapist because they are sensitive and emotional. Sometimes veterans struggle with this therapy if they cannot develop a relationship with their therapist. Another factor that can affect the effectiveness of CBT is the timing. Sometimes three to six months is not enough to show long term effectiveness of the therapy. Another treatment option is exposure therapy.
Two selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), paroxetine and sertraline, have been approved by the FDA for the treatment of PTSD. However, the results of the effectiveness of pharmacology in double-blind, placebo controlled studies were not greater than PE and CPT or they were insignificant (Peterson et al., 2011).
I will be collaborating with The National Institute of Mental Health for the funding of the research project. The research will attempt to identify what factors determine whether someone with PTSD will respond well to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) intervention, aiming to develop more personalized, effective and efficient treatments. The mission of this project is to transform the understanding and treatment of mental illnesses through basic and clinical research, paving the way for prevention, recovery, and cure (National Institutes of Health, 2013).
The patients generally come to the clinical settings when secondary stage psychological problems surface. Therefore, early detection of symptoms and impactful intervention is the key to effective management of PTSD .
Participants will be collected different PTSD clinics to avoid biases. Patients will be collected in groups each at a time.
“People with PTSD experience three different kinds of symptoms. The first set of symptoms involves
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a relatively new diagnosis that was associated with survivors of war when it was first introduced. Its diagnosis was met largely with skepticism and dismissal by the public of the validity of the illness. PTSD was only widely accepted when it was included as a diagnosis in 1980 in the third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III) of the American Psychiatric Association. PTSD is a complex mental disorder that develops in response to exposure to a severe traumatic event that stems a cluster of symptoms. Being afflicted with the disorder is debilitating, disrupting an individual’s ability to function and perform the most basic tasks.
Nevertheless, limitations to the successes of these treatments do exist. “Some studies have estimated that of the general population with PTSD diagnoses, only 49.9%
According to Watts, Zayed, Llewellyn-Thomas, and Schnurr (2016), “almost 7% of adults in the United States experience PTSD at some point in their lifetime and the presence of PTSD among veterans of the recent wars in Iraq and Afghanistan is 14%.” This is a large amount of the population. Veterans returning from war with PTSD may not have the structure and support they need. It is reported that “twenty-two
If the patients scored a 44 or greater on their PTSD checklist then they would then complete a baseline assessment. From there if the patient met the PTSD diagnostic standard they were randomly put into 1 of 3 treatment conditions: Integrated Cognitive Behavioral Therapy(ICBT) plus Standard Care(SC), Individual Addiction Counseling(IAC) plus SC, or just SC by itself. Instruments that were used were urine drug screens. These were used to confirm that the patient was actively using a substance. Another tool used was the one step Multi-Drug Screen Test card that has an Integrated iCup. This test is used to test for many drugs recent in the patient such as: cannabis, amphetamine, opiate, etc. The Timeline Follow Back(TFLB) Method and ASI were also used. The TFLB is a well-organized interview that is like a self-report, that is used to obtain a patient’s substance intake for the former 90 days. The Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), is a diagnostic interview used to measure PTSD. For the patient to meet the criteria the CAPS total score must be equal to 44 or greater. The patient must also report symptoms such as numbing, hyperarousal, etc. Moderate PTSD scores were between 44 and 64. CAP scores that were equal to 65 or greater was considered severe PTSD. ASI was used to examine psychiatric problem severity. Things such as chi-squares and T-tests were used to evaluate the differences in baselines in
PTSD criteria A and B. Josh meets all of the criteria for PTSD as outlined in the DSM-V (American Psychiatric Association, 2013, pp. 272-272). Criterion A refers to exposure to a traumatic event. Josh meets criteria A1, A2, and A3 (only one of four is required to meet criterion A) because he both witnessed firsthand the car accident that claimed the life of his fiancée, and she died tragically in his arms. Josh meets criterion B1 of the disorder because of his vivid, recurring, involuntary, and deeply distressing
1.3,NAD, UNIT13, Evaluate different approaches that may be used to ensure the selection of the best individuals for work in health and social care.