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Democratization And Afghanist Changes Essay

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Democratization and Afghanistan: Changes Needed to Stabilize Afghan Democracy
Executive Summary: In 2001, the Bonn agreement laid out the framework for a democracy in Afghanistan, however, the transition to democracy has been met with many challenges. The establishment of a bicameral legislature, popularly elected president, and the restoration of civil liberties showed hope for democratization, but the institutions established in the country fail to provide the stability needed for Afghanistan to successfully transition to a democratic regime (Zain 84; Reynolds 104,105). New electoral systems are essential to providing stability and legitimacy to democracy in Afghanistan and balancing ethnic interests in a nation marked by strong ethnic cleavages.
Context and Importance of Problem: Afghanistan has experienced political instability and conflict. After the Soviet invasion in 1979, Afghani mujahedeen waged a jihad against the communist government. In 1989, the Soviet Union withdrew from Afghanistan, but the civil war continued until 1996, when the Taliban seized Kabul and introduced fundamentalist Sharia policies. After the September 11 attack on the United States, the U.S. and their NATO allies began bombing Afghanistan. When the Anti-Taliban Northern Alliance forces took Kabul, the Taliban were overthrown (Rubin 63-65). In December 2001, the Bonn Agreement set up a foundation for establishing a democracy in Afghanistan. The agreement sought to set up an interim
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