Different Perspectives And The Key Debates Within Psychology Essay

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This essay will aim to describe and evaluate the behaviourist approach while referring to other perspectives and the key debates within psychology. Behaviourism believes that human behaviour can be explained in terms of conditioning, without the need to consider thoughts or feelings (Cardwell & Flanagan, 2015). The Behaviourist approach has a number of assumptions such as it emphasises that psychology needs to be scientific, to do this you must only study observable and measurable behaviour while producing empirical data. This means that you can produce systematic and replicable results which would be reliable in their accuracy, so you are able to produce a credible conclusion to your theory (McLeod, 2016). This can be shown by research by Clark Hull (1943), in which he stated that we have two types of drives: primary, these are innate such as the drive for hunger and secondary which are conditioned such as the drive to earn money. Motivation (a response) is formed by the want to reduce these drives (a stimulus) as these cause discomfort and tension (Culatta, 2015). You will know if you have conditioned a drive to someone by (confusing) observing their behaviours associated with motivation and you can measure how many are displayed. And so, you can conclude whether drives can be conditioned or not. However, being scientific, on the whole, produces results with low ecological validity because to control variables, experimentation usually happens within a laboratory setting
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