Forester-Miller and Davis’s (1996) ethical decision-making model suggests that the initial step in resolving an ethical dilemma is to first identify the problem and then clarify the nature of the problem. This entails gathering pertinent information that will help elucidate any potential ethical issues. One important matter to reflect upon is whether this dilemma is ethical, clinical, professional, legal or any combination of the aforementioned categories (Forester-Miller & Davis, 1996). Honing in on the nature of the ethical issue will provide some direction as to which avenues are the most applicable for the given ethical situation.
It is important to look at ethical dilemmas in a systematic way, thus increasing the chance of achieving a solution that gives the best possible outcome. An ethical problem solving model taken from American sources (Paradise and Siegelwaks, 1982; Austin et al., 1990) was used to develop a six-step process to follow, in order to achieve this (Bond 2010, pg. 227). This process informs this paper, and I am in the role of counsellor.
Kitchener (1984) identified five moral principles that are viewed as the cornerstone of our ethical guidelines. The five principles, autonomy, justice, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and fidelity.
We are going to explore the world of ethical issues in psychology. As in any medical or mental health fields there are rules we all must follow as professionals. In this essay today we will be exploring a case study where we have a young lady who has been stricken by a mental disability. We will be looking at the facts in which her disability was handled by a professional in the field of psychology. We also will be discussing the rights and wrongs that are presented in her case study. We will also be discussing the APA ethical codes and gain a clearer understanding of where some things went wrong and why shall we begin.
Apply the ethical decision making model presented in week one lectures (adapted from Beemsterboer, 2010; Velasquez et al, 2009) to the case study.
Now, let's see how learning about the Four Ethical Lenses and a simple method for decision-making can help you resolve a typical ethical dilemma. Ready?
The ACA Code of Ethics states, “when counselors are faced with ethical dilemmas that are difficult to resolve, they are expected to engage in a carefully considered ethical decision-making process,” (ACA, 2014, p. 3). Throughout these three case studies, I will use the seven-step ethical decision-making model to address the important professional issues, relevant ethical codes, and legal standards (Forester-Miller & Davis, 1996). By applying the steps to each case I will share how I came to my resolutions.
The method of ethical decision making which was developed by Dr. Cathryn A. Baird presented two components contained in all ethical decisions which are; The Four ethical Lenses and the 4+1 Decision process. The Four Ethical Lenses issue claims that different ethical theories and the means in which we tend to approach the situations which form part of our ethical traditions are looked at in four different perspectives. From each perspective there are different values on which to decide whether the action taken is either ethical or not and each lens also lays emphasis on determining whether the decision made is of ethical requirement. In the 4+1 Decision Process, people who are responsible for making final decisions in an organization do it
Virtue ethics is one of the three major approaches in ethics. This approach of ethics emphasizes the virtues, or moral character, in contrast to other approaches which emphasizes duties or rules. Virtue ethics has three central concepts; virtue, practical wisdom, and eudemonia, however, these are often misunderstood. The three approaches of ethics are virtue ethics, consequentialist ethics, and deontology ethics. Each approach provides a different way to understanding ethics.
Professionals in all fields experience ethical problems especially in health care. In fact, ethical issues arise in government, industry, science, and academia (Steneck, 2004). Ethical issues can be see in every decision making process which often involves competing goals and motives (Werhane, 2002) Ethical decision making (EDM) requires a number of complex cognitive processes in which people must assess the effectiveness of alternative courses of action in the context of their understanding of the problem and the relevant rules and guidelines involved (Miner & Petocz, 2003). Occupational therapists (OT) have increased autonomy to meet the clients and provide unrestricted practice in today's healthcare
According to Pope and Vasquez (2007), there are 18 steps used in the ethical decision making process, and these steps serve as a guide for every professional psychologist. The steps are available to help the psychologist know when he or she must think through and know how to respond appropriately to an ethical dilemma, how to take responsibility for his or her actions to the response that he or she has made. These steps will also assist the psychologist in coming up with a way to see specific aspects of the situation, he or she will be able to consider both the negative and the positive consequences in which an individual could respond, and finally the steps will help the psychologist to develop different approaches to meet the needs of the client. The first 14 steps will be considered in this section as it relates to the role of the psychologist and what boundary issues are.
The first principle per the APA code of ethics is beneficence and nonmaleficence, this is where psychologist focus on the do no harm to their patients (APA, 2010, p.2). A psychologist is to strive to provide the best benefit to a potential client or individual they professionally work with and seek to safeguard their welfare and rights. The guarding of welfare and rights is also attributed to animals used in research. Among psychologist, conflicts will arise and should be handled accordingly to minimize harm (APA, 2010, p.2). Due to the possibility that a psychologist’s scientific judgment and actions may affect another’s life, they must be alert of their own personal, financial, social, or political views as they may be misused to influence others. The psychologist also needs to be aware of their own mental and physical health, so they are at their best capability when helping others.
The first ethical dilemma is determining if the patient has determine-making capacity (Brady, 1996). Does the patient understand all the information concerning her condition and treatment? If the patient does have decision-making ability, it is her or her right to deny medical advice. If the patient does not have the decision-making capacity then the therapist must find appropriate
Making consistently ethical decisions is difficult. Most decisions have to be made in the context of economic, professional and social pressures, which can sometimes challenge our ethical goals and conceal or confuse the moral issues. In addition, making ethical choices is complex because in many situations there are a multitude of competing interests and values. Other times, crucial facts are unknown or ambiguous. Since many actions are likely to benefit some people at the expense of others, the decision maker must prioritize competing moral claims and must be proficient at predicting the likely consequences of various choices. An ethical person often chooses to do more than the law requires and less than the law allows.
Throughtout this written assignment there will be a discussion on ethical decision making about making a decision on possible ethical consequences that may be placed in your life, and what ethical consequences will be dealt with in the mental health professional field. Decisions could possibility pertain your conduct such as an ethical dilemma that will required a serious decision to be solved by your action as an leader. Even though a leader may not have caused the problem, they do not have a choice but to respond to the issues at the workplace. The key is how would a leader react to the issue and how their reputation and career standards will interfear afterwards. An early recognition could prevent many ethical issues from increasing in the mental health field and work environment. Ethical dilemmas could happen in many different ways, such professionals do have any act of acknowledge by knowing they have allowed themselves to be placed in a predictment without any knowing about it. This assignment will also discuss the scenario, what the reactions were from the team leader, what consequences should take place, the code of ethics and what were the results from decision making.