The pathway of care for EP and miscarriage have evolved in the recent decades, which have effected on the reporting trends of hospital admissions for EP and miscarriage. Without unified and validated databases of inpatient and outpatients data a national levels, trends of hospital admissions for EP and miscarriage are difficult to estimate, and they are falsely reported. The type of management of EP and miscarriage, and services available at maternity hospitals, such as early pregnancy units, are some of the factors that might influence on differences when reporting incidence rates found in the literature. However, more research is needed to fully understand the socioeconomic and pathways of care factors impact on women’s morbidity when experiencing
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Infant deaths in the neonatal period are caused by complications arising from preterm births, birth defects, maternal health conditions, complications of labor and delivery, and lack of access to appropriate care at the time of delivery. Infant deaths in the post-neonatal period are driven by sudden unexpected infant death (SUID) (including sudden infant death syndrome [SIDS]), injury, and infection (MMRW, 2013). An increasing proportion of post-neonatal infant deaths occur among infants who were born preterm but survived the neonatal period (Callaghan, 2006). On the other hand there is lesser knowledge of the incidence and etilogy of fetal mortality which according to MacDorman et al, makes fetal mortality an overlooked public health issue. Lee et al, echoed the same idea when they said infant mortality has been the main focus of public health programming while fetal deaths have gone untargeted. However, with the decrease in infant mortality rates there have been recent approaches such as perinatal period of risk analysis framework (PPOR) that highlight the need to include fetal
Maternal mortality represents more than the loss of lives for individual women, as it also reflects the larger value and prioritization of women 's health and threatens the health and survival of families, young children, and even the communities in which they live (Royston and Armstrong, 1989). Maternal mortality is unacceptably high (WHO, 2015b). Globally, approximately 830 women die every day from pregnancy- or childbirth-related complications (ibid.). The causes of maternal mortality are predominately preventable and can be classified into three fundamental causes: (1) medical - consisting of direct medical problems and pre-existent/coexistent medical problems that are aggravated by pregnancy, (2) underlying - social and legal conditions, and (3) health systems laws and policies that address availability, accessibility, and quality of reproductive health services (PHP et al, 2011).
Miscarriage is a term used for a pregnancy that ends on its own. Miscarriage is the most common type of pregnancy loss and usually happens during the first 13 weeks of pregnancy. About one in four pregnancies end in miscarriage, and there are many reasons this happens to pregnant women.
The author is a nurse in a level two trauma facility in a community of approximately fifty thousand people in Oregon. The community is a college-town surrounded by a large agricultural area. There is a minimal ethnic diversity within the community. The diversity present occurs mainly from internationally students and faculty from the college. There is a growing population of women who desire low interventional births in the community. The author has worked on the labor and delivery unit of the hospital for the last 14 years. The hospital is the only one in the area to offer trial of labor services to women who have previously undergone a cesarean section. The unit on average experiences around 1000 deliveries annually.
Summary: This article describes how emotionally and physically challenging stillbirth can be to its victims. Stillbirth which is “the birth of an infant that has died in the womb after having survived through at least the first 28 weeks of pregnancy”, is not only challenging for the mother of the baby, but it affects the whole family as well. Per to this article, stillbirth affects about 1 in 200 pregnancy and that’s in the U.S only, because
In order to elaborate the above mentioned aspects Tower Hamlets Borough has been chosen by the researcher. In the context of Tower Hamlets Borough, 17% of the maternal deaths in the Borough between the period of 2011-2012, which included direct, indirect and late (between 42 days-365 days after delivery,
Cesarean birth can be lifesaving for the fetus, the mother, or both in certain cases. However, the rapid increase in cesarean birth rates from 1996 through 2011 without clear evidence of concomitant decreases in maternal or neonatal morbidity or mortality raises significant concern that cesarean delivery is overused (Caughey,
By definition, the Tenth Amendment gives much more power to the states. This Amendment states that any powers delegated directly to the national government in the Constitution belong solely to the national government. Meanwhile, any powers not specifically given to the national government are given to the state governments, regardless of if the powers were specifically given to the states or not. These powers are called unenumerated, or not listed, powers. This Amendment gives more power to the state governments, and therefore ensures that the national government can overtake all of the power. In federalism, power is shared between the national and state levels of government, which the Tenth Amendment lends greatly to by separating
In the paper I will make a group proposal for a support group for couples who have suffered from one or more miscarriages. During the time of the group meetings we will help work through the grief that is felt by the couple after the experience of a miscarriage in the last year. In this proposal I will lay out rationale of the group. This will include the reason for the groups and why it is needed. I will also cover the objective of the group, meaning what goal and progress do both I and the client expect to see. In the practical considerations section of this paper I will detail how I plan attract members, screen them, and the size and composition of the group. Additionally, I will also detail in
The effects that impact on anyone that has ever had a miscarriage, is dramatic and as well dealing with the emotional and psychological effects it causes. Not only for a short period of time that this will go on, but it can last all the way till the next time to try to conceive again or for the rest of a women’s life if they never conceive. A woman can develop anxiety from it and the fear of never being able to ever have a baby of her own has a big impact on her relationship with her spouse and friends that have kids of their own. It is not easy going to baby shower after baby shower seeing all the other children walking around and seeing your best friend carrying her first at nine months pregnant. As we all grow up and move on other relationships,
In his article, "Why are so many U.S. women dying during childbirth?", Munz (2012) pointed out that U.S. is experiencing a rise in maternal mortality. It has doubled for the last 25 years and the experts are uncertain about the increase. Experts are not entirely clear for the rise in the maternal deaths in the U.S., but there are some aspects that may be link to this.
making medical abortions safer than childbirth and about as safe as naturally occurring miscarriages. According to the US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, A study conducted by Doctor Grossman, Doctor Ellertson, Doctor Grimes and Doctor Walker have found “found little evidence that mandatory follow-up visits typically detect conditions that women themselves could not be taught to recognize. In addition, the natural history of the most severe complications after abortion-infection and unrecognized ectopic pregnancy-have time courses inconsistent with the usual timing of the follow-up visit. Costs associated with this visit can be great. These include travel expenses, lost wages, child-care expenses, privacy and emotional burdens for women, and scheduling disruptions and the related opportunity costs caused by "no-shows" for the provider. Follow-up appointments should be scheduled for those women likely to benefit from a physical
Medical Studies consistently show that in the first-trimester, where nine in ten abortions are performed, the mortality rate for abortion-related deaths is no more than four in one-million abortions. However the number of deaths increases to one death per 11,000 when it is performed at 21 weeks or later. The risk associated with childbirth is approximately fourteen times higher that an abortion procedure. There is a less than 0.3% risk of major complication from an abortion that would need hospital care.
According to the text book Parent-Child Relations: An Introduction to Parenting by Bigner and Gerhardt (2014), miscarriage is the word known for a pregnancy that ends unplanned during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy. The reasons why miscarriage happens varies but there is no exact cause and no exact way to tell when and how it can be prevented. Bigner and Gerhardt (2014) also mention that around 10 to15 percent of known pregnancies are miscarriages. This topic is important to discuss because even though 10 to 15 percent of pregnancies seem like a small amount of miscarriages, it is actually a vast majority. Miscarriage is a difficult challenge that both the mother and the father of the unborn fetus have to go through which is why more individuals need to know more about miscarriage. First I will discuss why miscarriage happens and how it can be preventable. Next, I will discuss the impacts of miscarriage on both the mother and the father. Lastly, I will discuss how parents can cope with the loss of their unborn fetus.
Pregnancy is meant to be an exciting happy time; not only for the mother, but for the whole family and friends. So, when a woman miscarries, the psychological impact/ trauma is unbearable and very devastating. The experience and feeling of loss, grief, guilt, and shame caused by a miscarriage can take a toll on everyone. These feelings can also turn into a major depression in some women and possible questions of what could have I done differently, or feeling like you had a hand it in can start to surface.