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Effects Of Climate On Small Scale Farmers

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Chapter 3
Literature Review
Introduction
This literature review seeks to highlight some of the effects that the change in climate has on small-scale farmers along with the strategies that they have employed to mitigate these impacts.
Overview of the Global context in the change of Climate
The change in climate refers to the alteration in the condition of climate that is easily identifiable through the use of statistical tests through alterations in variability and/or mean of its properties and exists for a much longer period, in most cases decades It can also be described as change in climate that takes place over time, whether it is as a result of human activity or natural variability. For instance, in (1995-2006) the eleven years were
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The process of systematic observations of climate is normally carried out in national centres of metrology and other specialized centres. The observations are taken at standard pre-set places and time and monitor terrestrial, atmosphere and ocean systems. The variables of the major climate include; tropical cyclones, temperature, temperature of the sea surface, rise in sea level, tropical cyclones and wind speeds. A report by GCM suggests that the mean annual temperature for Jamaica will increase from 1.1 to 3.2 degrees by 2090. The report also suggests that the increase in range is 1.0 to 3.0 by 2080 and 0.7 to 1.8 by 2050. Likewise, the range in the projected rainfall by 2050 will be -44% to + 18% and -55% to +18% by 2080. The September / November rainfall (late wet season) and July/August (early wet season) have impacted strongly on the general yearly rainfall. The rainfall extreme projections are mixed across the joint. The range of changes by 2080 will be between -19 and +20 for rainfall proportion falling during heavy events and -29mm to +25 in a five day maximum rainfall .
Precipitation patterns and temperature alterations will lead to decrease in crop produce in most sub-tropical and tropical regions thus impacting negatively on sectors of Agriculture . Consequently, its effect will cause hunger in developing countries. In the last decade, there has been damage as a result of severe climatic conditions
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