Typically, the level of ocean water around the world is higher in the western Pacific and lower in the eastern, near the Western coast of South and
North America. This is due primarily to the presence of easterly winds in the
Pacific, which drag the surface water westward and raise the thermocline relatively all the way up to the surface in the east and dampen it in the west.
During El Nino conditions, however, the easterlies move east, reducing the continuing interaction between wind and sea, allowing the thermocline to become nearly flat and to plunge several feet below the surface of the water, allowing the water to grow warm and expand. With the help of the National Oceanic and
Atmospheric …show more content…
Where the surface water moves away, colder, nutrient-rich water comes up from below to replace it which is called upwelling. The winds that blow along the equator also affect the properties of upwelled water. When there is no wind, the dividing layer between the warm surface water and the deep cold water would be almost flat; but the winds drag the surface water westward, raising the thermocline nearly all the way up to the surface in the east and depressing in the west.
The resulting changes in sea-surface temperature will have an effect on the winds. When the easterlies are blowing at full strength, the upwelling of cold water along the equatorial Pacific chills the air above it, making it too dense to rise high enough for water vapor to condense to form clouds and raindrops. As a result, this part of the ocean stays indubitably free of clouds during normal years and the rain in the equatorial belt is mostly confined to the extreme western Pacific. However, when the easterlies weaken and retreat eastward during the early stages of an El Nino event, the upwelling slows and the ocean warms.
The moist air above also warms. It would produce deep clouds which make heavy rain along the equator. The change in ocean temperatures thus causes the major rain zone over the western Pacific to shift eastward. In this way, the dialogue between wind and sea in the Pacific can become more and more
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For many years now, scientists have believed that our climate is changing. This climate change has caused water currents up north, near Antarctica to shift leading to warm waters taking the place of the usual cold arctic waters. Warm water melts the glaciers and causes the top of the glaciers to float off into the sea, allowing the warm water to melt even more glaciers. The extra glacier melting into our sea has caused the sea levels to raise and the
The ocean's surface waters are separated from colder, deeper water by a thermocline. The upwelling of cold waters, along the equator in the eastern half of the pacific basin, can be blocked when sea level is high, resulting in warm events. When sea levels are low the thermocline tends to be shallow, allowing upwelling motions to bring cold water to the surface, resulting in cold conditions. How it's measured is by devices used to track decadal variability and climate patterns which includes thermometers, rain gauges, and stream gauges. Sea surfaces temperature is important in tracking ENSO and other ocean oscillations. This can be measured by the distance
Since the 1950s, the amount of heat stored in the ocean has significantly increased. Ocean heat content determines sea surface temperature, it also affects sea level and currents. An overall average of the world’s oceans. Since 1880 sea level has risen at a rate of roughly six-tenths of an inch per decade. In recent years, the rate of increase has increased more rapidly to more than an inch per decade. Sea level has risen the most with an increase of more than 8 inches between 1960 and 2015, along parts of the Gulf coast and the Mid-Atlantic coast. However, sea level has decreased relative to the land in parts of Alaska and the Pacific Northwest.
The very nature of our ocean is to rise and fall, to sway with the pull of the moon, and to churn violently as the winds howl. The ocean has been this way since its inception and it will continue to do so as the arrow of time marches on. There have been cycles in which the nature of the ocean has wavered, but an equilibrium is kept, and life adapts. However, in our grotesque folly, we have decided that this should no longer be the case. We have changed the nature of our oceans so suddenly that life is crushed by force exerted through this change. Temperatures rise without regard to ecosystem or environment. Glaciers sweat profusely from the bombardment of heat. Sea levels rise. The importance of the oceans to the world at large cannot be understated.
condition, similar to the south would be the North West region of the map. Certain maps can
Upwellings have a process in which nutrient-rich waters well up from the surface and displaces the surface waters. Surface water is pushed away from the wind, and the water that is pushed away is then replaced by water that rises up from beneath the surface. After this process, the warmer surface waters moves off shore meaning that it is now fully replaced by colder waters. The ESSW have large concentration of nutrients which will fertilize the surface water and allow biological productivity. In addition, the upwellings also affect the salinity near shore. Within 100 km of the coast, salinity during the summer and winter will reach 34.8 to 34.9 PSU (IFOP, 2012). Ocean currents have a major influence on climate change. The cold currents affect land temperatures. Typically during upwellings, clouds and fog will appear frequently near the coast. The cold current is responsible for coastal deserts because it reduces the amount of rainfall, specifically in the Galapagos Islands. Furthermore, the coast of Peru and Chile receives less than two inches of rainfall
Scientists realised that the ocean was slowly turning over from top to bottom in a continuous global loop. Like a conveyor belt, thermohaline circulation moves nutrients from one part of the ocean to another.
Storms that form north of the equator spin counter-clockwise and storms south of the equator spin clockwise.This difference is because of Earth's rotation on its axis. As the storm system rotates faster and faster, an eye forms in the center. It is very calm and clear in the eye, with very low air pressure. Higher pressure air from above flows down into the eye.the winds of a hurricane create hazardous conditions.Hurricanes are the most dangerous storms on earth and the outcome will blow you away.
The rise in sea level globally is caused by many things the main ones being water added due to land ice melting in Alaska, Greenland and Antarctica due to gravitational effects which has a significant effect on the ocean. With land in the northernmost of Washington rising this causes the relative sea level to fall. However in the rest of Washington, Oregon and California the land is sinking causing relative sea level to rise. and sea water expanding from warming up. In North west America is due to different factors. One of these is the climate aspect where the most important aspect is the occurrence of major El Nino. El Nino involves the Southern Oscillation which affects the winds and ocean circulation this causes the raising of local sea level when there is a warm phase (El Nino) ad lowering of the local sea is during a cool phase (La Nina). With the seasonal variations in the directions and speeds of the shelf currents and the changing directions of the coastal winds. These processes in turn produce seasonal variations in water temperatures.
For example, to people in China, Greece and other European countries are considered west. But for someone in the United States, Europe would be considered east. For someone living in Maine, Kansas is west, but to people in California it would be east. Because the world is round there is no definite point that can be said this is always west. However, because this can be unreliable, a map of the world has been divided into western and eastern and western hemispheres. This puts North and South America in the western hemisphere, while Asia, Africa, Europe, and Australia are considered the eastern
This can cause extensive dissociation of the southern Atlantic margin gas hydrates. Warm core rings created by the warm waters of the gulf stream can get stuck on the continental slope of New Jersey. Other factors include the NAO ( North Atlantic Oscillation) which causes warm waters of the atlantic to take of the cold, which increases the bottom water temperature at shallower depths than usual. This could provide an explanation to the decadal occurrence of the upper slope emission on the New England
Sea level rise is a phenomena observed recently due to the effects of global warming on the state of water on our planet, the increase in temperature causes glaciers to melt and less water being trapped on land in the form of snow or ice, and the rising temperature causes the oceans themselves to expand, due to the decrease in density from the increased vibrations of the molecule causing each H2O molecule to take up more space.