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Environmental Effects Of Reactive Oxygen Cells

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Primitive earth’s atmosphere was filled with molecular oxygen (O2) by the invasion of cyanobacteria (Schopf, 1993). Atmospheric oxygen has played a major role in the evolution and is responsible for catabolic activities of living organisms. On one hand, reactive oxygen species (ROS), as we know it can prove lethal to the living organisms. But on the other hand, ROS can also play a major role as a second messenger in the cell and control many essential processes from cell death, cell differentiation, cell survival and host immune response. The main source of ROS is the electron transport chain during aerobic respiration (Nohl et al., 2004; Nohl et al., 2003; Sedensky and Morgan, 2006). The most interesting redox regulated phenomenon is the…show more content…
Pre-conditioning with lower doses of ROS can lead to trigger the expression of antioxidant genes to scavenge ROS (Jamieson, 1992), protecting the yeast from cell death due to high levels of ROS inside the cell. This baker’s yeast has proved to be a valuable model system to study human fungal pathogens like Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, etc, in the absence of genetic tools for these organisms. According to evolutionary history, S. cerevisiae and C. albicans got diverged about 300 million years ago (Stajich et al., 2009). Although, they share some common characteristics but are genetically and phenotypically different in many respects and hence makes baker’s yeast a “not so genuine” model for studying fungal pathogens (Karathia et al., 2011; Mohammadi et al., 2015). C. albicans and C. glabrata are the major fungal pathogens responsible for causing life-threatning infections in immunocompromised individuals with mortality rate of more than 50% among fungal infections and rising due to rise in immunocompromised patients (McNeil et al., 2001; Yang et al., 2017; Yapar, 2014). Thus it becomes incumbent upon us to understand the molecular mechanisms of survival of these candida species inside the host, flourish and cause systemic invasive infections. The toolkit of fungal pathogens, C. albicans or C. glabrata to neutralize and survive the damage caused by ROS during respiratory burst inside
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