Essay On Biofilm Formation

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Biofilms are communities of bacterial cells. Bacterial cells become much more antibiotic tolerant by forming biofilms. Antibiotic resistance causes more than two million infections and 23,000 deaths in the United States every year. It is really urgent that we need to understand the biofilm formation so that we can develop novel antibiotics. People have found out that there are some signaling molecules, which are critical for biofilm formation. However, we do not know how the distributions of signaling molecules determine individual cell fate during tolerance and persistence development. Studying the spatial and temporal distributions of signaling molecules in single cell level will help us understanding the mechanism of biofilm formation. …show more content…

Spinach was discovered using the Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX) technique against DFHBI immobilized on agarose resin. People have developed Spinach- based sensors against adenosine, ADP, S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM), guanine, cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP) and GTP using existing aptamer sequences. A key challenge for RNA-based sensors is that they normally function poorly in cells. This is because RNA is easily degraded by nuclease and also has poor folding in intracellular. Poor folding RNA can be contributed by many elements, such as the difference folding structures and thermal instability, or rely on ion concentration. Later people developed 49-nt-long aptamer-Broccoli, which has brighter green fluorescence upon binding DFHBI. Folding of Broccoli only needs low concentration of magnesium and the Mg2+ presents low amount in body so Broccoli can fold better than Spinach. Broccoli also has a higher thermostability than Spinach. Additionally, Broccoli does not require a tRNA scaffold to promote its folding in vivo. However, under cellular imaging conditions, Spinach and Broccoli show greatly reduced fluorescence compared with nominal brightness. It has been known that the fluorescence decrease of Spinach−DFHBI is not due to irreversible photobleaching like GFP. It is caused by reversible conversion to a non- fluorescent state and the signal can be recovered

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