Halophytes have been closely studied for many years since they were discovered, yet there is still not enough that is known about the biology of these plants and have been given countless varying definitions over time as more information is discovered (Grigore et al., 2014). The earth’s surface is made up of 72% of its water mass being of specifically high salinity (Flowers and Colmer, 2014). Something else to consider is that 7-10% of land is affected by levels of high salinity, mainly as a result of our impact on poor irrigation. (Grigore et al., 2014; Munns 2005, referenced in Joshi et al., 2015; Bromham, 2014). This information might be able to inspire us to find out how these plants can potentially be of great assistance to us in the …show more content…
Habitat-indifferent halophytes are as suggested indifferent to their habitat, yet again preferring a soil that is low in salinity. This type is defined as having a tolerance to salinity (Grigore et al 2014; Mishra et al 2017). Osmotic adjustment is a very important aspect of a plant's saline adaptability. By increasing solute concentrations, they lower their water potential, thus continuously attracting water throughout the plant which is needed with increasing salinity (Touchette et al., 2009, as cited in Joshi et al., 2015; Flowers and Colmer 2008). Na+ and Cl- are the major ions absorbed by halophytes (Flowers et al., 2010) and they are predominantly what halophytes will use for their osmotic adjustment. It is very important for them to keep the concentration of these ions at an ideal level for the purpose of osmotic adjustment, which is where ion compartmentalisation takes place in the vacuoles (Joshi et al., 2015; Flowers and Colmer, 2008; Flowers et al., 2010). As halophytes have larger vacuoles than glycophytes, they have the ability to store higher concentrations of Na+ and Cl-. As they are able to store these amounts of NaCl there is a need for organic solutes to be created that are compatible with these ions to balance the osmotic potential of mentioned stored ions (Joshi et al., 2014; Flowers and Colmer, 2008). Of course, the levels of ion compartmentalisation vary between species because as mentioned before, there are different levels of
Plants are found everywhere on earth, up high on the ridge and down low in caves and caverns. The types of plants that live in these places depends on many factors. These factors are separated into two different categories, the biotic factors and the abiotic factors. Some of the biotic factors include, predation, competition, and habitat destruction. Plants with limited competition and large amounts of resources will be in a higher abundance than plants with limited resources and higher competition rates will be confined to areas and either out competed or will be the dominant species. Certain plants adapt to these factors and thrive and others don’t do as well. Some of the abiotic factors include, sunlight, water, temperature, and wind. These
Plants that are adapted to drier climates are called xerophytes (an example if these types of plants are cactus). Some of these plants have adapted small, thick leaves with a reduced surface area. They may also have a thickened cuticle to protect themselves from the environment. The stomata may be sunken into pits. Some xerophytes shed their leaves during the driest seasons and others can store water such as cacti. CAM plants uptake CO2 at night and change it into crassulacean acid that can be broken down during the day for sugars. These plants can close their stomata during the day.
The main purpose of the experiment was to test the idea that water would move from the higher concentration to the lower concentration. In order to test this theory, we placed potato slices in 7 different containers, each containing different concentrations of NaCl, to measure the weight change from osmosis. The containers ranged from 0M NaCl all the way to .6M NaCl. We measured the potato slices before and after placing the slices in the solutions and recorded the net change in weight to determine the tonicity of the potato cells. Our results showed that the potato slices put in a NaCl solution of .2M or higher lost weight and the potato slices put in a NaCl solution of .1M or lower gained weight. This shows that the osmolarity of the potato falls within the range of .1M to .2M, and it also proves the process of Osmosis by having the higher concentration move to the lower concentration. In addition to this, it can be concluded that the osmolarity of cells can be determined by observing the affects of osmosis.
A very carefully regulated process is solute concentration. If there is a sudden increase in water which enters the extracellular fluid, sodium ions will then contribute less to the extracellular solute concentration as the ratio between water and solute has now changed. Osmolality is the amount of solute in a kilogram, hence the osmolality in the extracellular space has also decreased.
Author use many symbolism in the book The Bean Trees by Barbara Kingsolver. She uses symbolism because it makes it easier for readers to understand the deeper meaning or feeling of the character or the events that are happening. For example, author uses the symbolism of bean trees as transformation and Ismene as the abandoned children to show the deeper meaning of them.
This experiment, which was used to explore the Theory of Evolution created by Charles Darwin. The use of natural selection was apparent in the artificial modification of an organism's traits which aided in this investigation. Through this experiment the Wisconsin Fast Plant was used. It is a fast-growing organism developed to improve the resistance to disease in cruciferous plants. This plant aids scientist in the exploration of environmental effects on population due to the speed to which is matures and reproduces. Artificial selection was stimulated by the selection against plants with few hairs(trichomes). Trichomes create a wider variation which means it is polygenic. The plants that had only a few trichomes were
During osmosis, solvents move across a semipermeable membrane in order to regulate the solute balance within the cell (Campbell Biology). Experiment 5.5 was conducted to further research osmotic activity, particularly in potato cells in different osmolarities of a NaCl solution. The goal of the experiment was to find out whether the potato slices used would be hypotonic or hypertonic to the different osmolarities. This process is relevant because without osmosis, the passage of solvents would not be possible. To perform the experiment, seven potato slices were soaked in 5cm of a different osmolarity level of a NaCl solution (0M – 0.6M) to determine whether each slice was hypotonic or hypertonic to the NaCl solution it was placed in, based on percent weight change. The prediction that the potato slices soaked in solutions with lesser osmolarities (0M – 0.1M) of NaCl would be hypotonic to their solutions, and the potato slices soaked in solutions with higher osmolarities (0.2M – 0.6M) would be hypertonic to their solutions was supported by this experiment because the slices soaked in (0.2M – 0.6M) had
The objective of this experiment is to develop an understanding of the molecular basis of diffusion and osmosis and its physiological importance. Students will analyze how solute size and concentration affect diffusion across semi-permeable membranes and how these processes affect water potential. Students will also calculate water potential of plant cells.
Diffusion, osmosis and active transport of substances in and out of the membrane is very important for all types of cells. One example is the root hair cell. These cells are the exchange surface in plants which are responsible for the absorption of water and mineral ions so without osmosis and active transport this would not be possible. The water is taken up by osmosis through the partially permeable membrane. The root hair cells are surrounded by a soil solution which contains small quantities of mineral ions but mainly water, so has a high water potential (slightly less than zero). The root hair cells themselves contain a high quantity of amino acids, mineral ions and sugars inside them (low water potential). Therefore water will move by osmosis from the soil solution and into the root hair cells, going down the water potential gradient.
Osmosis is the movement of water molecules from high concentration to low concentration through semipermeable membranes, caused by the difference in concentrations on the two sides of a membrane (Rbowen, L.). It occurs in both animals and plants cells. In human bodies, the process of osmosis is primarily found in the kidneys, in the glomerulus. In plants, osmosis is carried out everywhere within the cells of the plant (World Book, 1997). This can be shown by an experiment with potato and glucose/salt solution. The experiment requires putting a piece (or more) of potatoes into glucose or salt solution to see the result of osmosis (a hypertonic type of solution is mostly used as it would give the most prominent visual prove of
Humans depend on plants in numerous ways. One reason we depend on plants is for consumption. Plants have the unique ability of producing their own food through a process called photosynthesis. In this process, plants are able to produce macromolecules such as carbohydrates that cannot be produced in animals or humans. In humans, the only to gain these macromolecules is to consume plant matter, or consume plant-eating animals (herbivores).
The plants that grow in saline soils have diverse ionic compositions and a range in concentrations of dissolved salts (Volkmar et al., 1998). These concentrations fluctuate because of changes in water source, drainage, evapo-transpiration, and solute availability (Volkmar et al., 1998). Due to these varying conditions, plant growth depends on a supply of inorganic nutrients, and this level of nutrients varies in time and space (Maathius and Amtmann, 1999). Either extreme condition concerning nutrients results in deficiency or toxicity in plants, and this is demonstrated by salt tolerance (Maathius and Amtmann, 1999). These conditions vary according to the plant species and growth conditions. Little is known about the genetic basis for diversity of salt tolerance in plants, and this could be partly explained through the definitions given for salinity.