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Essay On Traumatic Brain Injury

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Abstract
Patients who present with a traumatic brain injury (TMI), are at greatest risk of developing respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), which increases their death rate. The study of this article is to show the comparison of respiratory mechanics and the death rate with patients who present with a TMI and RDS with those patients who have RDS without a TMI, but other medical causes of the RDS. This study was performed in a 14-month period in a general intensive care and teaching unit in Brazil. It looked at patients who were in the ICU due to RDS with or without the cause being a TMI. A total of 85 patients were assessed in this timeframe: 30 of the patients presented with a TMI without RDS, 17 were present with a TMI and acute RDS, and
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TBI is the leading cause due to high incidence, complexity and the presence of challenging clinical management situations such as intracranial hypertension, thoracic trauma and intra-abdominal hypertension. The most common manifestation of a TBI is acute RDS with a high mortality rate. Respiratory failure paired with high PEEP setting and low tidal volumes make patients with increased intracranial hypertension harder to manage. It is hard to maintain these patient’s PaCO2 within a normal range causing protective ventilation strategies to be more difficult. The protective ventilations strategies recommend the mechanical ventilation include maintaining plateau pressures lower than 30cm H2O independently of ARDS severity. However, in patients with a TBI are at greater risk for pulmonary injury, which depends on the trauma severity, even in patients with a TBI and no RDS. In both patient types, TBI with and without RDS, the protective mechanical ventilation strategies are aimed at protecting the lungs and the lung function. Because of the variety of disease causes, there is speculation as to whether ARDS should be described as a single entity, or whether for each special situation it could all be described as a specific class of ARDS, with different management of the ventilation. The aim of this study was to compare the results of patients with TBI without ARDS and in patients with TBI with ARDS, are different from those in
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