Facts on Down Syndrome Essays

Decent Essays

The presence of an extra chromosome is prevalent in plants but rare in animals. Diploid human cells contain 46 chromosomes, 44 autosomes and two sex chromosomes namely XX in females and XY in males. At mitotic metaphase, each of the chromosomes can be recognized by its size, shape and banding pattern. However, there could be non-disjunction of chromosomes during the process of meiosis, and as a result, one of the cells may receive an extra copy of the chromosome resulting in a condition called trisomy. One of the most common chromosome abnormality in humans is Down Syndrome, a condition associated with an extra chromosome 21. This condition was first described by British physician, Langdon Down (Web. Down Syndrome, n.d.).
Symptoms …show more content…

One of the main reasons for the increase in the number individuals with Down Syndrome is that women are more career oriented and are starting families later in life. Women of 40 years of age have a 16 percent more chance of having a baby with Down syndrome as compared to a woman of age 25. (Web. Down's Syndrome cases soar as women delay starting a family, 2009).

Current Knowledge Trisomy 21 is a result of chromosome non-disjunction in one of the meiotic cell divisions. The non-disjunction event can occur in either parent, but more likely to occur in females. Congenital birth defects are difficult to treat but with the prevalence of Down Syndrome, numerous research projects are being carried out by Down Syndrome Research and Treatment Foundation (DSRTF). Some of the studies are as follows:
1. Balancing Excitation and Inhibition- the project deals with the exploration of neural circuits that are responsible for the memory and learning of the individual, using excitatory and inhibitory inputs. The study is carried out using numerous subtypes of GABA-A receptors. Roche, an international pharmaceutical company in September 2011, initiated Phase-I clinical trials for a drug employed to assess the protection and permissibility of the particle intended to deal with the behavioral and cognitive discrepancies related to Down Syndrome (Web. Active Research Projects,

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