INDIA is rich in its diversity of forms of informal settlement, which experience daily the realities of vulnerability to a wide range of hazards. In the way that Indian cities have grown, there has been uncontrolled development that simply obeys the necessity of the deprived classes of obtaining a habitat inside the environment of the city that allows them possibilities of getting employment and better living conditions, this has motivated the urban population's growth to increase at a rapid rate. However, spatial location of poor people has simply shifted, with worse living condition.
Informal settlement upgrading and development by its nature requires a strong emphasis and focus on the resident communities. The Urban design …show more content…
CONDITIONS AND ACCESS TO SERVICES IN INFORMAL NEIGHBOURHOODS
The urban poverty apart from being distinct from rural poverty also has another dimension which reveals that the problems being faced by the poor in small urban areas are different from that of large cities. However, in general, the urban poverty manifests in the form of inadequate provision of housing and shelter, water, sanitation, health, education, social security and livelihoods along with special needs of vulnerable groups like women, children, differently abled and aged people.4
In urban centers, people are dependent on public and private services to mitigate the environmental effects of the overcrowded conditions in which they live. Surveys have revealed that low-income groups residing in informal settlements are paying heavy costs. They have serious problems of physical congestion and economic deprivation that have been accentuated over the years. Lack of access to basic services such as water and sanitation can also be taken as an indicator of the prevalence of subserviced settlements, thus urban poverty is invariably associated with poor living quality. Often in overcrowded unsanitary slum settlements there is easy spread of infectious diseases. Lack of access to services also plays a major part in the spread of disease. In the developing world the five major childhood conditions that are
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Many individuals all over the world are affected by poverty. In order to completely understand the cause, the effect, and the solution to ending poverty, we must first understand the meaning of poverty. Poverty is the condition where an individual’s basic needs for food, clothing, and shelter are not being met (business dictionary). According to the World Bank Organization, poverty is also the lack of healthcare, education, information, and jobs. There are two general types of poverty: Absolute and Relative. Absolute poverty occurs when individuals cannot obtain adequate resources to support a minimum level of physical health. Relative poverty occurs when individuals do not
Lastly, poor children live in bad environments which will most definitely affect their health and well-being. It is needless to say that one can find many poor children in a third world country. In third world countries, not only is there a lack of access to food, there are also a lack of clean water, clothes, and shelters. Some children are even forced to sleep on the streets because they are so poor. Moreover, these children are used as labor in poorer countries and are forced to endure long, strenuous hours in dangerous conditions (Hansen). These conditions are certainly not suitable for children and will traumatize them as they grow older. Children living in harsh environments, especially third world countries, experience such atrocious lives that it is nearly impossible not to feel sympathy for them. In general, children who are in poverty suffer from formidable risks that have the potential to ruin their health.
Children who are poor are most often born into poverty. Poverty is the lack of necessary needs in order to survive. Whether this be shelter, food, or water, most comes from a lack of cash flow through the family. Other situations can be divorces, children joining or being taken by rebel forces, parents passing away, or even situations of abuse. Statistics say that, “Around 55% of people live below the poverty line, living on less than a dollar each day. Areas with the greatest number of poor are particularly in the east of the country, where conflict continues”. With the majority of poor people living in the east, this also means that healthcare is worse there. When living conditions are not sanitary and there malnutrition, this causes people to become more susceptible to menial diseases. With all these factors taken into account, “The capital, Kinshasa, contains around 20-25,000 children who sleep rough and survive by begging”. Without means to help support these starving children, the country will continue to stay in this unproductive state; there needs to be a prevention of these preventable diseases killing the
Child poverty can have many effects on children, one being health problems. A widespread method to family and community health is authoritative to provide children with the finest upbringing. Nonetheless, restricted access to health services and appropriate programs are often seen as serious. This could have been prevented with instant and continuing development. The number of families who are required to rely on emergency food sources, in a period of economic wealth is one example of the relationship between high costs of housing, food
Mike Davis, author of Planet of Slums, predicts the direction in which the world’s cities are headed, and how the changes in living conditions are only going to deteriorate if certain trends continue. The title of his book explains Davis’s vision for the future of cities as he feels there is enough evidence pointing towards an exponential rise in slum populations across the world’s largest cities. Additionally, he expresses his opinion on many issues regarding the rapid rise in developing cities’ slum populations, although he offers very one-sided arguments geared towards those who feel the current system is causing more problems rather than improving current conditions. This causes Davis to overlook the problems of slums as resolvable through different modes of assistance such as international aid programs. Instead, he views aid programs as the root cause of imbalance created during industrialization. Throughout the book, Davis presents information that confirms his preconceptions towards the slums. Therefore, all the evidence that is presented by him portrays confirmation bias as Davis fails to mention anything about the resolution of the problem of the growing number of slums and instead sees this problem as unavoidable. Particularly, Davis’ writing, although intended for the general population, is more geared towards critics who have similar ideas. Instead of providing the means through which the economy could be improved and the problem of slums could be resolved, it is
Poverty can be defined as the condition where people basic need for shelter, food, and clothing are not being met. Whereas Jensen (2009 ) define poverty as a chronic and debilitating condition that results from multiple adverse synergistic risk factors and affect the mind, body and soul. Jensen (2009) has identified six types of poverty. The six types of poverty are situational, generational, absolute, relative, urban and rural poverty. Situational is caused by a sudden crisis or loss and is often temporary. Generational is when two generation within the family have been born into poverty. Absolute involves a scarcity of
With most urban growth in the developing world concentrated in the squatter settlements, it can be contrasted to the masses of growth received and predicted in developed countries. Numerous factors draw people towards cities such as; better employment and educational opportunities, hospital and health care facilities and overall better living standards. With interconnected challenges constantly arising, many ambitious planning and development schemes are projected to the government. Many inhabitants lack belief in these authorities; hence Roosevelt devised a rule for unrestrained reform, which emphasised, “that undivided power helps to prevent the forces that benefit from the status quo from blocking change” (Glaeser E., 2011). Although often-forceful
Poverty for centuries has been a very severe issue that has troubled many nations while impeding economic developments and progress. Poverty stricken countries are majorly concentrated in the continents of Africa and Asia. Continents like the Americas and Europe have globally been recognized as been wealthier yet still many parts of these ostensible countries face massive cases of poverty. Most at times, countries with high populations owing to high birth rates face the most cases of poverty. The definition of poverty can be boundless in the sense that poverty entails so many subsections as it sometimes gets complicated to group everything under one umbrella. Society tends to focus more on the tangible aspects of poverty because many people associate poverty with lacking money and it makes sense because poverty in terms of lacking money is a major problem affecting almost every country in the world. Even though it is debatable that poverty can be physical, intellectual, spiritual and even emotional, it is best to talk about the lack of money and economic developments in this essay. With reference to the oxford English Dictionary, poverty is state of being extremely poor and the state of being inferior in quality or insufficient in amount. Reflecting on this definition given, I deduced that malnutrition and hunger can define poverty. In the light of this, I think poverty is lacking a comfortable place of shelter, being ill and not having access to a better
Amartya Sen presented a path breaking argument for the measurement of poverty. Capability school of thought presented a multi dimensional approach for the measurement of poverty. According to his capability theory, it is not having the capability that causes and brings about poverty. For instance, he suggests that urban poor are deprived because they do not have the capacity to produce adequate incomes to consumer adequate food and nutrition and to make informed decisions and act in such a way that would ameliorate their living standards. Therefore, following Sen’s capability theory, the important elements in describing the urban poverty entail, one’s health, gender, ethnic status, nutritional and educational (Sen, 1992).
Poverty is the lack of the basic needs of life, including food, shelter, clothing and safe drinking water. For a person to live normally, it is important to meet a certain level of physical, social, and emotional needs. People who live in poverty have difficult time to achieve those as they are not welcomed in many places. Because of their low incomes, they have troubles in maintaining their health, hunger, education. Poverty has become a large issue around the world. It is something that many of us know about but we’re not realizing just how big of a problem it is. This paper will include basic information about poverty, its effects, facts and statistics which can make people aware and want to help reduce poverty.
In Chapter 4, Roy (2008) defines the lack of city planning for the city of Calcutta as a way to understand the amorphous nature of land boundaries, settlements, and the lives that squatters live in this city. Shah’s story of the dreams of tombstones defines the new ways in which to interpret the hegemonic discourse of rigid land boundaries. Without an urban plan to develop stable living quarters in the city, it becomes obvious that the effects of poverty are being integrated into the chaotic and unorganized methods of housing developments meant for the working poor. This occurs through the premise of electoral politics that support impoverished populations that leads to an absence of land records and maps (Roy, 2008, p.138). In this manner, the Desakota Hypothesis should be re-defined due to the existence of squatter regions throughout Calcutta, which do not fall into the rigid framework of the urban and rural divide. This aspect of the “communist” politics of Calcutta is part of the new frontiers of land management, mapping, and boundaries that define the new squatter culture in India. The hegemonic process of political domination that preserves the disorganization of working populations and the settlements in which they live.
Many small town dwellers and villagers had left their hometown for the cities in search of higher standard of living. This movement from rural areas to big cities is called urbanization (Boundless, 2015). As a result, urbanization is the process by which there is an increase in the number and the percentage of people living in the urban settlements and the amount of industrialization of the settlement. In Belize statistics shows that 45% of the population lives in urban areas (Population Reference Bureau, 2014). It also refers to the increase in the size of land area occupied by urban settlements such as towns and cities. Although urbanization has brought about numerous positive impacts, it also has its share of disadvantages as well. The negative impacts of urbanization shall be discussed by means of the economic, environmental and social aspect.
The problem of slums have started because of excess migration of people from the rural areas to the urban areas and when the people who have migrated do not get proper place to settle down and live, the settlement of the slum areas (mostly in the outer parts of the city) takes place. But the settlements in these slums are not proper and lack basic facilities of sanitation, electricity, connection to the roads, proper construction of houses
Slums are hindrance to the achievement of economic growth and development. It is the duty of the government to plan effectively towards the achievement of quality life within the cities. Slums contribute towards the presence of criminal activities within the cities and unemployment hence a significant force towards the overall economic development. Upgrading of slums is vital in the process of offering economic, social, institutional, and cultural services to the city dwellers like other citizens.