A multitude of studies have been conducted to figure out the optimal styles to handle conflicts. The previous papers have mentioned the two-three-four-five factor model of conflict resolution. It was not until 1940 that the first five-factor model of conflict management was conceptualised by Follet with three primary methods namely domination, compromise, and integration, as well as secondary ones avoidance and suppression (as cited in "Learning material on interpersonal conflict: Rahim’s model", n.d.). Concurring with Follet were Blake and Mouton (1964) conceiving the scheme into forcing, withdrawing, smoothing, compromising, and problem solving on the basis of concern for people and concern for production (as cited in "Learning material …show more content…
Adapted from Rahim, A., & Bonoma, T. V. (1979). Managing organizational conflict: A model diagnosis and intervention. Psychological Reports, 44, 1327, as cited in "Learning material on interpersonal conflict: Rahim’s model" (n.d.)
The Integrating Style is defined by Rahim and Bonoma (1979) as a Problem-Solving method with high concern for self and others (as cited in "Learning material on interpersonal conflict: Rahim’s model", n.d.). It is required that all of the entities collaborate with each other to reach a mutual agreement via explicit conversation (confrontation to explore the root causes of conflicts), mutual understanding and positive contributions.
According to Rahim and Bonoma (1979), the Obliging Style (or Accommodating) is associated with low concern for self and high concern for others (as cited in "Learning material on interpersonal conflict: Rahim’s model", n.d.). Therefore, the sacrifice of personal needs from one party to adapt to the other’s needs will be likely to be observed. There will usually be no confrontation to find out the source of conflicts and seek the best solution for both members. The obliging person is seen to be selfless and lenient and easily adjustable to the other’s wishes without showing …show more content…
In a give-and-take situation like this, each party will sympathise with each other and sacrifice a bit of their interest to accommodate to others’ needs and to come to a final mutual consent. It is necessary to have open communication to find the middle ground for the problem. It is the consolidation of the best element of all of the aforementioned methods.
The table below is a comprehensive summary of all characteristics of the five conflict management styles by Rahim and Bonoma (1979).
Table 2: Characteristics of Conflict Management Styles (Pološki Vokić, N., 2009)
Avoiding • Low concern for self and low concern for others; unassertive and uncooperative personality
• Lose-lose outcome (because both parties refrain from communicating their needs, so neither has any needs met)
• The desire to withdraw from the conflict situation or suppress the conflict
• Withdrawal behaviour, postponement, disengagement from conflict, hiding disagreement, sidestepping
• The likely outcome is that the conflict remains unresolved
• Might take the form of diplomatically sidestepping an issue, postponing an issue until a later or better time, or, ostrich-like, simply withdrawing from a threatening situation
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In the second scenario, the parties in conflict are in a student-teacher relationship. Notably, the professor has the higher power in the relationship, and is better with usage of conflict styles than the student is. Furthermore, the results of the questionnaire determine that I exhibit very strong habits of collaboration in impersonal interpersonal conflict. “Integrating shows a high level of concern for one’s own goals, the goals of others, the successful solution of the problem, and the enhancement of the relationship” (Wilmot and Hocker 165), which I seem to possess even in an impersonal relationship. Particularly, the results of this situation, shows that I have strengths in avoidance, compromise, and accommodation-conflict styles. I understand my stance in this circumstance, and acknowledge the fact that I could use some improvements in these habits when dealing with conflict. Notably, the following discusses the benefits of knowing my conflict
There are five conflict-handling styles: Forcing Style, Collaborating Style, Compromising Style, Avoiding Style and Accommodating Style. The compromising style “refers to behaviors at an intermediate level of cooperation and assertiveness. (Hellriegel, Slocum pg. 392) ” The person using is style tries to meet a goal by give-and-take. The accommodating style “refers to cooperative and unassertive behavior. (Hellriegel, Slocum pg. 393) ” The person using this style tries to accomplish a goal by using unselfish acts that will promote cooperation in others by complying with their wishes. The collaborating style “refers to high levels of cooperative and assertive behavior. (Hellriegel, Slocum pg. 391) ” The person using this style is using a win-win approach to working with others and handling conflict. When the CEO of General Hospital, Mike Hammer first attempted to control physician-driven cost he used the collaborating style by trying to convince the Director of
The collaborative style views conflicts as problems to be solved and finding creative solutions that satisfy all the parties’ concerns. You don’t give up your self interest; you dig into the issue to identify the underlying concerns, test your own assumptions, and understand the views of others. Collaboration takes time and if the relationship among the parties is not important, then it may not be worth the time and energy to create a win-win solution. However, collaboration fosters respect, trust, and builds relationships. To make an environment more collaborative, address the conflict directly and in a way that expresses willingness for all parties to get what they need.
In Interpersonal Conflict, Wilmot and Hocker reference Rahim’s (2011) model of five different conflict styles: obliging, avoiding,
There are different conflict management styles, the dictatorial style, which insists that things are addressed their way and the low self -esteem style, which just allows others to have it their way. It is up to the individual to decide which way works for them. Additionally, the abdicator handles conflict by bowing out or walking away. This method is unhealthy because it robs the offended growth opportunity, which results from working through issues (Pegues, 2009, p.49). Another style is the collaborator, which often involves cooperation and pulling together to reach a common purpose and are emotionally balanced.
In team settings, individual team members generally handle conflict in five key ways as identified in an adaptation of the Thomas-Kilman Conflict Inventory (1976): Avoidance, Accommodation, Competition, Compromise, and Collaboration. All five conflict styles can be both beneficial and/or costly to individual and team success. It can also be argued that all five conflict styles may be useful to resolve conflicts under certain circumstances. Please review the five conflict styles listed below:
We use neglect responses when we think the escalating disagreement will harm everyone or the person thinks they will lose if the conflict progresses
Each person has a characteristic personality. Such a style reflects our unique wants, needs, and values. In conflicts, there are specific global patterns that can be identified that are reflective of how individuals deal with such challenges. These global patterns consist of five approaches to conflict management: Competing, Collaborating, Compromising, Avoiding, and Accommodating.
As I stated previously, my own conflict style tends to be accommodating. In a disagreement, I give my opinion and I listen to the other party’s and I usually end up giving in to what the other party wants. For the most part, I give in because I don’t like to argue and it just seems easier to keep the peace and give the other person what they want. When I look closer at this pattern I can see that I am accommodating out of fear that the situation
Integrating; this style of conflict management is concerned with identification of joint problem, confrontation of attitude and proposing the possible solution for the conflict. This style of conflict management is more effective for solving complex issues. Additionally, this style of conflict management tends to be more effective in long run. However, this style of conflict management may not be effective in managing the conflicts that surface out of differing values of employees.
52). This common belief among users of this style drives them to search for answers using all of the tools at the team’s disposal. The different dynamics of the team become assets. They see the differences that distinguish the members of the team as points of view are respected and viewed objectively. Differences like a male versus a female’s perspective, race, culture, and even social or economic status are viewpoints that give all in the team a bigger picture of the different issues they may need to consider when coming to a conclusion about how best to achieve their goal. Though this style is thought of as the best route for teams to use, it is also one of the most difficult. Even a person who has a natural talent or personality that promotes this style of conflict management has to practice to be effective using this style in a team setting. A person cannot be judgmental and must be sure not to take anything said personally. This is something that most if not all of the team members must have an awareness of. All team members have to feel comfortable with the results and with what was given up from their own personal point of view to arrive at the team’s decision. This style is also very demanding so it requires a good amount of patience. Depending on how quick a decision is needed it is not always possible for a team to achieve and some in the team may not believe that their best interests were achieved.
These behaviors are further incorporated into the concept built around the idea that people react in one of five basic ways when faced with interpersonal conflict situations; competing, collaborating, compromising,
The third form of Conflict management is Accommodation. When the task at hand is more important than the conflict that has arisen and when relationships may be damaged putting the entire project in jeopardy. With this method a team member may minimize the conflict in order to protect the relationship and ultimately the project. Some of the negative aspects in using this
Do you agree with the approaches suggested by authors for the three types of conflicts – interpersonal-based, task-based and process-based?