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Fritz Heider : The Theory Of Attribution Theory

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The second component of social perception is attribution. Attribution is the process in which we attach meanings of other’s behaviors. Similarly, attribution theory refers to the study of models people implement in order to make judgments about the behavior of others. Fritz Heider, an Austrian psychologist whose work was related to the Gestalt school, published “The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations,” which expanded his creation of attribution theory. Heider initiated that “people are naïve psychologists trying to make sense of the social world” (Heider, 1958). People tend to observe others by determining whether behaviors are internally or externally caused and whether those factors are stable or unstable. Stable factors are unlikely…show more content…
For example, fatalistic cultures such as Hinduism in India exemplify group-serving bias, rather than self-serving bias because the cultural group believes in fate and reincarnation of souls. More specifically, Hindus tend to believe that what you have done in your past life is responsible for your fate today, and the actions in this life can affect your next life.
Additionally, Edward Jones and Keith Davis’ theory helps individuals understand the process of making internal attribution (1965). People make internal attribution in correspondence between motive and behavior. Edward Jones and Keith Davis proposed a “Correspondent Inference Theory” confirming that people make attributions about other people by comparing their actions with alternative actions in order to evaluate their choices. According to Edward Jones and Keith Davis's theory, the sources of information people use as a basis for their inference of a person include factors such as: the person’s degree of choice, accidental vs. intentional behavior, social desirability, hedonistic relevance, and personalism. On the other hand, Harold Kelley's “Covariation Model” is an attribution theory in which people make causal inferences to explain why people behave in certain ways through multiple observations (1967). Kelley’s Covariation Model of Attribution also explains how people use social perception to attribute behavior to internal or external factors and how others
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