Genetic Disease: Sickle Cell Anemia

Decent Essays
The focal point of this journal article focused on how the inherited genetic disease; Sickle cell anemia, is influenced by ethnicity and ancestry; two key categories that must be considered when explaining genetic associations and comparing traits amongst a population. This article compared the genetic profiles of African Americans with sickle cell disease to individuals of the Caucasian/ European descent and African descent. They discovered that although there is slight genetic comparison between ethnicity, there are more similarity in relation to ancestry and the Sickle cell trait. Three ancestry’s that resonated the most were the Mandinka’s, Yoruba’s, and Bantu from West Africa. In this study, researchers combined genome data from different…show more content…
Individuals with ancestry from the outlier Northern African ethnicities fell into a separate category showing little similarity with West, East and South Africans. The group of individuals with the greatest concentration of Africans and African Americans with and without the Sickle cell disease 55% and 43% respectively, were all from the Yoruba, Bantu, and Mandinka population. A significant percentage of individuals without the Sickle cell disease gene showed high level of Caucasian ancestry than Africans with sickle cell disease, demonstrating that Africans and African Americans with sickle cell disease have less similar genes with Caucasian in their ancestry. The research showed that individuals with Sickle cell disease have a genetic background most similar to that of the Mandinka, Yoruba, and Bantu tribe of West Africa. This is because individuals with Sickle cell disease inherit dual copies of the sickle mutation; a prevalent trait among the African populations. In the United States, sickle cell disease is common among the African American community. African Americans with Sickle cell disease have less Caucasian admixture than African Americans without the disease; their ancestry is most like the Mandinka, Yoruba, and Bantu populations in Western Africa. These observations can be applied to the interpretation of genetic association…show more content…
Sickle cell disease is an inherited blood disorders which leads to an abnormal hemoglobin or red blood cell shape. Hemoglobin is the protein found in red blood cells which transports oxygen throughout the body. Sickle cell disease is inherited by being passed on through genes from parents to their offspring. It is not a contagious as one cannot contract it through an infection or being with someone else. Individuals with Sickle cell disease inherit two abnormal hemoglobin genes from each parent respectively. The alteration in the composure of hemoglobin of someone with sickle cell leads to the change in red blood cell shape from a normal circle to a sickle shape. This leads to blood clotting, dehydration, anemia, and low oxygen in tissues. Furthermore, some other negative side effects of Sickle cell anemia are weakened bones and an overworked heart. Although Sickle cell has no present-day cure, there are experimental trials being conducted through bone marrow transplant and has proven effective. The primary goal of this transplant study is to reduce and ultimately eliminate the frequency of the Sickle cell episodes, crisis maintain normal hemoglobin levels. There are ways to prevent episodic sickle cell crisis such as staying adequately hydrated, limiting physical activities, blood transfusions and taking
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