Today, Calculus is one of the most important branches of mathematics with applications in science, engineering and economics. But who invented this wonderful tool? As with many questions of invention, the answer is a little complicated. Most mathematicians will tell you that two men deserve the credit for the development of modern calculus, Gottfried Leibniz and Isaac Newton. Of course, Newton and Leibniz were merely the next links in a long chain of discoveries that led to the creation of modern calculus. The ancient Greeks had first dipped their feet into the field with the famous mathematician Archimedes being the first to find the tangent to a curve and Antiphon of Athens developing the method of exhaustion, an early technique to compute the area of a region.
He discovered the laws of planetary motion, explained how gravity works, and invented calculus, a new branch of mathematics that proved invaluable to modern scientists and mathematicians.
Mathematics has been a part of society ever since its began. Numerous great minds have contributed to the field but one of the most influential mathematicians was Leonardo da Vinci. Genius, renowned and ahead of his time, Leonardo Da Vinci has been called all of these from the time he began changing the world and still is to this day. I chose Leonardo da Vinci to as my scientist because of how progressive da Vinci was within his designs. The power of mathematics and da Vinci’s mind brought humanity amazing new things and ideas. Though Da Vinci is most known for his superior artistic talents, he was also an inventor that incorporated mathematics into designs that were hundreds of years ahead of their time. The invention of a battle tank, robots and diving suits are all accredited to Leonardo da Vinci.
Lastly Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was an educated mathematician, scientist, historian, diplomat, theologian and philosopher. He had the same dream as Spinoza and Descartes, that is, "hope for a systematic organization of all conceivable knowledge." In order to achieve this dream he required first, to perfect a universal scientific language that would reduce all thoughts to mathematical symbols. Second, he succeeded in developing one of the first forms of calculus. With this reasoning tool Leibniz hoped to bring all thought under the reign of symbolic logic (Rogers & Baird, 1981, p. 70).
His interests ranged across many mathematical and scientific fields, including geometry, trigonometry, calculus, optics, astronomy, cartography, mechanics, and even music theory (Euler). Euler was the first to officially introduce several of today’s standard mathematical notations, including the sigma symbol “∑” to represent the sum of a list of terms, the conventional notation “f(x)” to denote a function of x, the use of the letter “i” to represent √-1, and the systematic labeling of “A, B, C” and “a, b, c” for the angles and corresponding sides on a triangle, respectively (Boyer). One of his better known discoveries is known as “Euler’s Number,” denoted by the symbol “e” which represents the value for the base of natural logarithms in much the same way that “흅” does the circumference of a circle (Euler also helped institute the standard use of “흅,” although he did not initially discover it) (Leonhard Euler). In fact, Euler worked so hard that he lost sight in one, then both of his eyes, one of them becoming infected after a botched operation intended to restore its vision. Yet Euler maintained his strong faith in God, claiming that this faith is what supported him through his painful loss of his vision (Leonhard
Although The earliest trace of calculus comes in the Mid 17th Century. The people who invented infinitesimal calculus was Issac Newton and Gottfried Lebriz ,but one of them reported the other stole their work and this argument continued the argueing until their death. There were signs before they lead to integral calculus.
Geometry and Algebra are so crucial to the development of the world it is taught to every public high school in the United States, around 14.8 million teenagers each year (National Center for Education Statistics). Mathematics is the engine powering our world; our stocks, economy, technology, and science are all based off from math. Math is our universal and definite language “I was especially delighted with the mathematics, on account of the certitude and evidence of their reasonings.” (Rene Descartes, 1637).
From the period of 1145AD – the late 16th century, many mathematicians developed on algebraic concepts. However, it was not until the 1680’s that the most remarkable discoveries were made using algebra. Sir Isaac Newton was a very famous mathematician, English physicist, astronomer, philosopher, and alchemist. During his period of study, he used algebra to describe universal gravitation, develop the laws of motion, found orbits of the planets to be elliptical, discovered that light was made of particles, discovered the rate of cooling objects, and the binomial theorem. His most important works were the development of calculus. However, Newton did not work alone on creating the
Archimedes of Syracuse is not only known for his work as a mathematician, but he was also known for all his inventions. However, Archimedes is known as one of most significant mathematicians of all times. He is responsible for nine extant treatises. One of the major inventions by Archimedes are the Integral Calculus, Exponents and an accurate approximation of pi. As of today, the inventions done by Archimedes have changed and evolved the basis of mathematics.
Leibniz and Newton pulled these ideas together into a coherent whole and they are usually credited with the independent and nearly simultaneous invention of calculus. Newton was the first to apply calculus to general physics and Leibniz developed much of the notation used in calculus today; he often spent days determining appropriate symbols for concepts. The basic insight that both Newton and Leibniz had was the fundamental theorem of calculus.
David Hilbert was a German mathematician whose research and study of geometry, physics, and algebra revolutionized mathematics and went on to introduce the mathematic and scientific community with a series of mathematical equations that have yet to be solved. Furthermore, his study of mathematics laid the groundwork for a variety of ongoing mathematic analyses, which continue to influence the world today.
Pierre de Fermat Pierre de Fermat was born in the year 1601 in Beaumont-de-Lomages, France. Mr. Fermat's education began in 1631. He was home schooled. Mr. Fermat was a single man through his life. Pierre de Fermat, like many mathematicians of the early 17th century, found solutions to the four major problems that created a form of math called calculus. Before Sir Isaac Newton was even born, Fermat found a method for finding the tangent to a curve. He tried different ways in math to improve the system. This was his occupation. Mr. Fermat was a good scholar, and amused himself by restoring the work of Apollonius on plane loci. Mr. Fermat published only a few papers in his lifetime and gave no systematic exposition of his methods. He had a
In order for Newton to have discovered the mathematical genius of calculus, he first tried to understand the world around him through physical science. As a result he formulated the famous and well-known Three Laws of Motion, which looked to explain the effect of gravity on falling objects and how objects react with each other. To explain his theories of motion and gravity, Newton came up with calculus, which provided a method to find the change in an objects position and velocity with respect to time. Furthermore, Newton studied a vast amount of work by past prominent mathematicians. Through his extensive research and brilliance he realized that the earlier approaches to finding tangents to curves and to find the area under curves were actually inverse operations of each other and through seeing this relation, he formed the basis of calculus to answer his thoughts about the natural world. Differential calculus was one of his most important findings and is described by the Funk & Wagnall’s New World Encyclopedia as providing a, “method of finding the slope of the tangent to a curve at a certain point; related rates of change, such as the rate at which the area of a circle increases (in square feet per minute) in terms of the radius (in feet) and the rate at which the