Greek and Roman Architecture
Greek and Roman architecture is truly amazing. They each had great ideas, and fabulous productions. It is said that the Pantheon is to Italy what the Parthenon is to Greece. Both are tremendous monuments that reek of culture and history. Each had a purpose which was displayed by the design and construction of each. There are such great meanings behind each of these architecural structures. The Romans and the Greeks alike worshipped and dedicated their structures and designs to the Gods and Goddess they believed in.
The Pantheon is a temple to all the Greek gods and goddesses. The Pantheon was a temple in honor of the Olympic gods; in fact, the word pantheon is Greek for "of all the gods" It is the …show more content…
From the outside of the Pantheon the dome seems shallow and insignificant, said to be purposely done not to ruin the "suprise" of the interior (Gilbert 379). It is only when viewing the inside that one can truly appreciate the amazing architectural design and workmanship of this building. Another remarkable attribute of this temple to the gods is that it is still in use today with much of the original materials intact. The columns, the marble paneled walls, the floor, and the two enormous bronze doors are all originals, making the Pantheon the best preserved surviving Roman structure. The Panthenon can be viewed at the following site which shows many pictures of the interior and exterior of this truly remarkle building: http://www.kent.wednet.edu/curriculum/soc_studies/rome/Pantheon.html
Dedicated to the goddess Athena, the warrior maiden, the Parthenon is a Doric style temple (Gilbert 368). It took about 15 years to complete this strucutre (Gilbert 370). A lot like the Roman Pantheon, it had many columns surrounding the interior and exterior of this structure. This place was decorated with many sculptures along the inner roof top. It was painted in vivid colors, such as red and blue (Gilbert 370). Refered to as the cella its inner chamber housed the monumental statue of the Goddess Athena. Pheidias' hisself created this thirty foot high statue of Athena Parthenos, consisting of a frame made of wood, metal, clay, and plaster.
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The Greeks finished building an exquisite temple to their beloved goddess, Athena in the year 432 BCE. (Sayre 60). The name of this enriched, unique temple was the Parthenon. The Parthenon took the Greeks approximately fifteen years to complete and as Pericles stated, it was built to give gratitude to their goddess Athena for the salvation of their city, Athens and all of Greece in the Persian Wars (Sayre 60). It was also a symbol of their power and superiority among other cultures. It was something the Greeks took great pride in and recognized it to a great extent. The Parthenon was built on the highest point of the city of Athens to look over the precious Greek city. On the exterior walls of the Parthenon there was beautiful artwork that
An easily made mixture of sand and rock, it was much lighter than marble, just as durable, and could easily be worked to form different configurations. This progression in material, and craftsmanship enabled the Romans to make the dome which still can be seen today. However, they did not stray too far from the Greek innovations; they also included Corinthian columns made from granite as part of the façade. The porch on the Pantheon has the same character as the Parthenon; it uses the columns to assist in holding up the porch roof. The Parthenon also used columns, called Doric which was not just the style of columns, but also represented an architecture design that gave the standing columns a unique look. Using the post and lintel system, they distributed the weight of the massive roof evenly. They were also used more extensively throughout the Parthenon, using an ingenious ratio of 4:9 which gives it a sense of harmony and balance. One difference they do portray is the way light enters inside the structures. With the Parthenon having columns that surrounded the entire structure, light was able to freely enter without obstructions. The Pantheon light source, other than the light that enters through the front entrance, is by a hole that is in the roof that is approximately twenty-seven feet in size. However, we
Pantheon located in Rome, Italy is the most well conserved architectural structure of the Roman period. Pantheon, initially a roman sanctuary worked to committed to every one of the divine beings, however in 609AD., it was transformed into a congregation and stays as it. Initially worked by Agrippa around 27BC under Augustus' lead however it was caught fire during 80D, under Emperor Domitian's care then build it again, yet was struck by lightning and burned down again in 110AD. The present Pantheon was worked in 120AD and finished by Emperor Hadrian alongside Apollodorus of Damascus. (Hannah and Magli 2011)
Many centuries before the birth of Christ, the city of Rome grew, prospered, and developed into a thriving Republic. As in most cultures, Rome's buildings became more elaborate and impressive. They developed fantastic building technologies and ideas. The feats of Roman engineers were groundbreaking, and many structures built by this culture still stand today. With knowledge borrowed from the Greeks, Rome made impressive architectural achievements, these were namely major attributes of buildings, colossal structures, and a legacy that would influence later buildings (Cornell and Matthews 11).
The Pantheon deduces its name from Greek word meaning “All the gods of a religion”. The Pantheon was originally constructed as a famous temple in Rome which was devoted to all the gods of Ancient Rome. It is the best preserved building from Ancient Rome and was completed by 125 CE. Its magnificent dome is a living testimony to the genius of the Roman architects and as the building still remain undamaged, it offers a unique chance for the modern boulevardier to step back 2000 years and experience the glory that was Rome.
Pantheon and Hagia Sophia Pantheon and Hagia Sophia are two extremely outstanding architectural pieces of their times. They have been built according to the traditions of those particular times. The materials used to built these buildings and the purpose for which they were used are all very important aspects and have been briefly covered in this report. Pantheon The statesman Agrippa built pantheon in 27 B.C. Then it was completely rebuilt by the emperor Hadrian. The Pantheon is remarkable for its size, its construction, and its design. The dome was the largest built until modern times. The present structure was probably originally built as a temple for all the pagan gods. We do hear of it as being a law-court and a reception area for
During the Roman Empire, the Pantheon was built in the years of 117-125. The Pantheon originally a temple dedicated to honoring all the gods in the Roman culture. Decorated with Corinthian columns in the entrance leads to a large domed centered room. Within the room is statues of Roman gods separated with more Corinthian columns. The domed roof of the Pantheon is specialized because of the oculus in the center. The hole was created as a release of tension and distributes the weight across the ring. The oculus lets in water when the weather rains, so the architects designed the floors to distribute the water out of the building. During the fall of Rome, the Pantheon was converted to a church to preserve the statues and other valuables from being
Agrippa, Augustus’ right-hand man, constructed this building as a temple to all the gods; however, a fire destroyed this temple in 80 CE and so Domitian built the reconstruction. The Pantheon we are familiar with has a significantly different design than the original one, and this is why this specific temple is so dislike to the rest of the Roman temples. Before it was burnt, the Pantheon stood in a podium at the end of a large rectangular court. The surroundings of this temple have changed in order to provide a unique experience to its visitors. For example, the temple has en enormous dome with a 27-foot oculus that opens to the sky. This oculus lets a shaft of light come through creating an emphasis wherever the reflection is. Visitors were driven nowhere but to the light at the center of the dome. This building was built for greeting foreign embassies, adjudicating disputes and hold court (Janson). Moreover, the Pantheon is extraordinary because of the potential and strength of concrete. Some other materials used in the process of building the temple include travertine, tufa, brick, and pumice. These materials varied in order to reduce its weight. The colored marble on the wall symbolized imperial authority. The sphere is though to symbolize eternity and perfection and the bronze panels symbolized a starry night sky.
Il Pantheon (Pantheon) “pan” means all, “theon” means God. It is a preserved intact Roman Empire building, located in the centre of Rome, Italy. It was built in 27-25 BC by Marcus Agrippa, and Emperor Hadrian rebuilt it in 125 AD.
When one thinks of Roman architecture, many things come to mind, such as arches, columns, statues, and richly covered surfaces in marbles. One must stop to think that this empire, which gained power and influence in the first century BC, must have been influenced from the thousands of years of cultures preceding them in order to create their masterpieces of ingenuity. This phenomenon can be seen in our borrowing of ideas of ancient Greece and Rome for the construction of our capitol buildings in the United States. The Romans surely considered design principles of other cultures when developing their buildings, since daily conquests of new lands opened Roman soldiers’ eyes to innovations from the great vastness of their empire. This
Arguably, one of the most influential structures of Rome was the Pantheon because of its immense size, and the use of concrete for the massive dome. This structure was named the Pantheon most likely because Pliny the elder, a spectator during the time of Vespasian 's rule saw this and referred to it as the “Pantheum”. Although the version of the Pantheon that Pliny the elder saw is not the Pantheon currently in Rome, there are many accounts of what it looked like, and why it was built. Agrippa’s Pantheon, the version that Pliny witnessed, or the original pantheon was built during the Pax Romana. This was a time of peace for the Romans, and to lead them in their endeavors was Emperor Augustus. During this time culture flourished because of there was no need to worry about necessities. From 31 BCE to 14CE the Pantheon was constructed to honor the Julian clan. The result of this was a south-facing rectangular building, with the Thermae of Agrippa, or the Roman public baths to the south. This temple was decastyle, meaning that is had 10 columns on each side. Pliny also mentioned that Diogenes of Athens was commissioned by Agrippa to create the caryatid columns. Caryatid columns are much like sculptures, in that they depict a person, but this person is standing in order to form a column to support another structure. To much dismay this temple was destroyed in the
The Pantheon is a former Roman temple, completed in 126 AD. Currently a state property, it is now a Roman Catholic Church. As one of Rome’s most well preserved ancient buildings, it has had continuous use through the ages. This is likely due to the fact that it was converted from a temple to a church early on, saving it from sacking and destruction. At its’ inception, it is believed to have been a temple to numerous Roman deities. (“Pantheon, n.d.) The name pantheon refers to a temple dedicated to all the gods. (Merriam Webster, n.d.) The building is made up of a portico, or porch, and a rectangular vestibule that connects the porch to a rotunda. The rotunda features an oculus that provides light as well as ventilation. During rain and storms, any water entering the uncovered oculus runs off into built-in drains still functioning from their original construction. The dome’s inner design is comprised of intersecting arches and coffers. Likely symbolic, these were built in multiples of eight,
As the saying goes “Rome wasn’t built in a day,” however long it took to build the capital, the days, months, years, centuries of work can be viewed as a long lasting landmark which paved the way for new and challenging architecture to come (How Roman architecture influenced modern architecture [sa]). According to Tony Rook (2013: [sp] ch.2) the typical Roman temple shows the Etruscan tradition combined with the Greek one. Although some of their premature concepts were acquired from the ancient Greeks and Egyptians, Roman architects transformed the body of architecture for all time to come, offering buildings and structures that has never been before, along the side of public buildings and infrastructure that could be used by
The two ancient civilizations of ancient Greece and Rome were the best of the best during their time periods. Ancient Greece began around 2000 B.C. by the inhabitants known as the Mycenaean’s, followed by the Minoans. The Minoans built the foundation of Greece. The Roman Empire was founded around 753 B.C. by the two twins, Romulus and Remus. Romulus ended up killing Remus and built the city of Rome on one of seven rolling hills. Architecture was very important to both civilizations and they were always trying to out due the other. The architectural style of the Ancient Greeks and Romans was overall constructed and used differently.
The Pantheon, whose name derives from the ancient Greek and means “common to all the gods”: Pan means “all”, and Theon means “gods”, is the best preserved building from ancient Rome. Its magnificent dome is a lasting testimony to the genius of Roman architects and as the building stands virtually intact.