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Histopathological Analysis

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6.3.5.2. Histopathological Analysis Documented Enhanced Granulation Tissue Formation, Angiogenesis, Collagen Deposition, and Neo-Epithelialization by NCs Treatment
The process of recovery in skin wounds occurs through complex biological mechanisms, which are generally classified into three distinct but overlapping phases: inflammation, cell proliferation leading to granulation formation, and tissue remodeling (Kalashnikova et al., 2015). At the outset of the healing process (day 3), wound margins were easily demarcated by an abrupt interruption in continuity between epithelium and dermis. Differences among the groups were semi-quantitatively on the basis of inflammation, angiogenesis, fibroplasias and re-epithelialization were analyzed
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6.16). NCs also exhibited more neo-vascularization and neo-epithelialization. The neo-epithelial layer from marginal wound edges was thick and connected to the underneath matrix in treatment groups. A special M&T procedure was also carried out to evaluate collagen re-organization and density of collagen fibrils (stained blue) as tissue repair progresses (Fig. 6.17a and b). At day 8 post-wound (acute) and day 10 post-injury (diabetes), nano-structured cellulosic fibers present in NCs were able to promote fibroblast migration, collagen deposition in the dermis and wound closure more efficiently than control groups (Li et al., 2015). Similarly, bacterial cellulose-ZnO nanocomposites have been known to accelerate healing by increasing proliferation of fibroblasts and keratinocytes in burn wounds (Khalid et al., 2017). The dermal layer contained diffuse deposition of collagen fibers with very little evidence of granulation tissue organization in control mice. The increase in angiogenesis of NCs treated groups could be due to the release of lysozyme from the wound. Lysozyme acts on cellulose to break it into monosaccharides and oligosaccharides facilitating angiogenesis and tissue regeneration (Liu et al., 2014). AgNPs have also been known to increase the angiogenetic effect.
On day 14 post-wounding (acute) and day 18 post-wound (diabetes), the regeneration of the neo-epithelium has almost finished. The neo-epidermis by this time
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