The History of Gutters The first known use of a trough system to divert water served as a type of water spout, used to direct water away from ancient Egyptian structures. Egyptians were also known to use copper pipes during ancient times to transport water. The Romans began utilizing a guttering system as early as 27 BC in the development of early roads by building up the center of the roads to facilitate and direct the flow of water from the road. In 47 AD, the Romans brought the concept to Britain, where the future of gutters would eventually become a cornerstone in building technology. After the year 1066, the Norman’s initiated the rebuilding of the structures and towns of England laid to waste as a result of the Norman Invasion. Massive …show more content…
Buildings in the middle ages were constructed with stone roofs adorned with parapets. The gutters of the time used gargoyles at the head of troughs to project rain water away from the buildings in a manner similar to that of a downspout. This practice became commonplace and was the only gutter system of the era until 1539, when large quantities of lead became available after Henry VIII disbanded all English convents, Catholic monasteries, and priories. Lead From these huge structures was recycled and used in guttering, starting a new trend. Cast iron replaced the use of lead in the first half of the 18th century. The 1700’s saw a surge of plentiful and cheap cast iron which became very popular until the late 1700’s when wooden gutters replaced cast iron in popularity, especially in wealthier neighborhoods and public buildings. The aesthetically pleasing wooden gutters became the norm in new construction for the next 50 years. Between 1900 and 1925, steel became the newest addition of available gutter material through the use of a new invention, the rolling machine. Early productions led to today’s galvanized and stainless steel
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The word “aqueduct” is Latin and comes from “aqua” and “ducere” meaning “to lead water”. The Roman aqueducts were a network of channels and pipes built above and below ground with a purpose to carry water across expanses of land. The concept of the Roman aqueducts is simple
Roman aqueducts were very important to the ancient Romans and heavily influenced their daily life. The aqueducts brought wealth, power, and luxury to the people of Rome in more ways than imaginable and more than just for the obvious purpose of delivering water. When the wells and rainwater were no longer sufficient for the population of Rome, they had to develop a new method of bringing water into the city. Thus creating the invention of aqueducts.
They built great roads that were all connected and some are even still being walked on. All
The once subjugated Saxons were required to raise a knoll that was twenty-one meters high and surrounded by a dry trench. There were Wooden pikes or posts that protected the buildings on top of the knoll, while to in the south and east of the knoll there were yards that were protected by banks and ditches this all this was to set in motion the ground work for the castle of Norwich. Edward Boardman a Norwich born architect completed the Norwich Castle, a medieval and fantastic defense structure in the city of Norwich which was one of the greatest castles of its time because of its architecturally advanced structure, a symbol of military power, and a symbol of political control that was founded by the Normans.
In the 12th century Goodrich Castle, was replaced with stone. This decreased the level of destruction during wars. As a development of Stone Keep castles, concentric castles were built from 1250 onwards. The concentric design was copied from the castles in the Middle East; knowledge and understanding of design and structure came into England through returning crusaders (soldiers) during the 1200’s.
1) Why was there an explosion of cathedral building in Europe during the High Middle
England has a long history of periodic architecture and aside from recent war damage and the destruction during the Dissolution of the Monasteries Acts in the 16th century by Henry VIII, much of its historic legacy remains intact.
This use can proven as this occurred during the Roman golden age, named the “Pax Romana.” During this period of time many advancement were made to make lives better, people created new tools, easing the work that they would have to do, created better materials for better standing housing and shelter, and many new monuments and building for the use of carrying or holding things, such as aqueducts providing easy reach of water to the Romans. On top of what is already being compared to the aqueducts in
The wooden towers of a motte and bailey castle were removed and replaced with stone, because the towers were hollow, it was called a shell keep. Castles with a shell keep were better than the early Norman ‘motte and bailey castles’ because it was an expensive way of strengthening the motte, the fragile wooden fence around the motte was replaced with a stone wall. The castle engineers during the Norman period of time did not trust the motte to support the enormous weight of a stone keep, but the a common solution to that problem was to replace the wooden stakes enclosing the castle with a stone wall then building wooden buildings backing onto the inside of the wall. This construction was great because it meant that the walls could be thinner and lighter. The shell keep castles were less popular and were relatively short lived, the style stopped being popular very quickly. Castles like York castle Clifford tower have a stone
In reference to the history of punishment for crimes, which date back as far as 450 B.C., some of the earliest methods of punishment are replaced by more efficient and humane methods of punishments or corrections. Punishments back then were harsher, brutal, and inhumane because people strongly believed in the retributive approach to crimes committed by individuals. Punishments such as whippings, brandings, torture, beatings, and mutilations were in efforts to make the punishment as relevant as possible to the crime committed also known as corporal punishment. Liars had their tongues ripped out; thieves had their finger or hand cut
One of the most practical and effective structures the Romans built was the aqueduct. Fresh water was a necessity for any civilization to survive, and Rome found the perfect solution in distributing a water source into different parts of the city. Aqueducts were long and tall pathways for water that could be built in and around the city of Rome. The water came from different sources of water such as rivers. Although the Romans did not invent the idea of aqueducts, they mastered the method of building them. Since the system relies purely on gravity, the angle was important. The Romans calculated the angle of the aqueducts so that water could travel extremely long distances without it being stagnant or it moving too rapidly that it damaged the aqueducts (Messner
The oldest part of Stonehenge, called Stonehenge I (constructed ca. 3100 BCE), consists of little more than a circular ditch dug in the soil of the Salisbury plain, with the excess soil piled up to make an embankment approximately six feet tall. This area is approximately three hundred thirty feet in diameter, and encompasses “Stonehenge proper” – the familiar circles of massive stones that once stood
Without aqueducts we would not have inventions such as sewage systems, fountains, and toilets, which would be extremely hard to live without. These engineering wonders transported pipelines and into city centers through gravity. These pipelines would also often be lead, stone, or concrete, which was also an invention the ancient romans take credit for. Aqueducts enlightened Roman cities from a dependence on nearby water materials and engaged more in sanitation and health publicity. The transportation of water flourished as far as fifty miles which was very convenient and constantly began to become more popular throughout the
Each wave of migrations and invasions brought different cultures and added to what is now modern-day the United Kingdom. The Romans left their numerous long roads, whose names became lost in time since there was no written records or inscribed sources. Built by the Roman army and long after they returned home, their roads survived, and some routes are in use today. The Normans built fortified castles, which was a new concept since before that time there was none in the United Kingdom. One example is Restormel Castle, which is in a circular in shape as well as surrounded by an entrenched circular ditch for protection against attacks. The Vikings left parts of their language in the names of the towns and villages, such as names ending in by are where Vikings settled first. Places ending in Thorpe are their secondary settlements, and places that end in ton is for town or city.
The Tower of London is one of the most famous and visited historic monuments in the world. For some people it conjures up images of Norman architecture and towering battlements, but most associate it with arms and armour, ravens, the Crown Jewels, Yeoman Warders, imprisonment, death and ghostly apparitions. But this does not do it justice: the history of the Tower and its buildings is a vast, fascinating and complex subject, intertwined with the history of the country of England, its government, its kings and queens, and its people and institutions. The castle's first four centuries, during the Middle Ages, saw the development of the layout of buildings that we know today and its