Concrete is the ultimate building block of society; there are a plethora of ways that it has been used. Romans were some of the first, in recorded history, to use it; they used it to build their aqueducts and even the Colosseum. If anything, the Romans were some of the first to make huge developments in concrete, and they were some of the first to actually use concrete on a large scale. America has also used concrete on a large scale, using concrete to build the Hoover Dam and the Grand Coulee Dam. Those examples show how concrete is an incredibly strong and durable building material that has remained standing after all these years and will continue to be the primary
Concrete can be looked at as a material made from sand, gravel and cement. According to Lambert (2002), “the first major concrete users were the Egyptians in around 2,500 BC and the Romans from around 300 BC”. Roman concrete like modern concrete was an artificial building material made up of aggregate, binding agent and water. Aggregate could be gravel, chunks of stone, chunks of rubble, broken bricks, etc. Binding agent could be mud , lime or gypsum, mixed with rubbles stone. The Roman added pozzolona, a special volcanic dust found in central Italy (Archserve, n.d). The addition of pozzolona made the bond with the aggregate far stronger than what was traditionally being used. This development drastically changed and shaped construction work in the life of Rome.
In general, the durability of concrete covers directly on the ease or difficulty of fluid transport within the concrete, and classified as a concrete or too little permeable. The main transport agent fluid is water in the concrete, which may be pure or contain aggressive agents, such as dioxide carbon and oxygen. The displacement of these elements will depend on the concrete structure hydrated cement paste (Neville, 1997). THE Concrete durability of recycled aggregates also it depends on the ease or otherwise of transport these fluids. Olorunsogo and Padayachee (2002) studied properties related to the durability of concrete as the conductivity of chloride ions, sortividade permeability to oxygen and water, containing percentages of 0%, 50% and 100% replacement of natural aggregates by recycled. The results showed that the durability decreases increases in proportion as the percentage of replacement for all properties evaluated. However, these properties improve with increasing age and with percentages of 50% recycled aggregates in the
Concrete is a multipurpose and durable of building materials which are most famous and widely used in the manufacturing world. High Performance Concrete (HPC) also named as a concrete mixture, which consists of high ultimate strength, high workability and high durability compared to the concrete produced with conventional method. American Concrete Institute (ACI) defined high-performance concrete as a concrete which meet all special combinations of performance and uniformity requirements that cannot always be achieved by using conventional constituents and normal mixing, placing, and curing practice. The high-performance concrete does not require specific ingredients or specific equipment except careful design and production.
Concrete is known as a construction material which is widely used throughout the entire world. According to the research, concrete contains Portland cement and it is an essential element to concrete (Naik and Moriconi, 2010). This essential element is capable of releasing carbon dioxide significantly. As carbon dioxide is known to be a green house gas, hence it can be said that this type of concrete is damaging the environment. In order to save the environment a new technology is made by which eco – friendly concrete can be made. Such concretes are made of the concrete wastes that are known to be eco – friendly; therefore, the concrete is also eco – friendly. This type of concrete is also known as green
Pouring concrete is a huge part of America’s past. The Hoover Dam is entirely made of concrete. The Dam was erected of 3.25 million cubic yards of concrete while all of its additional facilities were an additional 1.11 million cubic yards of concrete (Arbeiter). That’s 4.36 million cubic yards of concrete! Assuming that the average price of a yard of concrete is one hundred dollars in today’s standards that adds up to 436,000,000 dollars for the concrete alone! That price doesn’t include the worker’s wages, the price of steel and metal that has to be put into the concrete, and even the price it cost to build the temporary diversions of the river so that the dam could be constructed.
Concrete has many effects on the environment. Concrete damages topsoil which is the most fertile layer of soil. Concrete also contributes to surface runoff, erosion, and pollution. Concrete is helpful for preventing floods by building dams. I think that using concrete is good because while it does create runoff while used in roads it won't when used in a monument. And even though it damages soil it will not matter because their are no farms in the city.
Concrete was one of Ancient Rome's greatest inventions. Roman concrete was created by dropping rubble into sticky mortar made from limestone. The Romans perfected concrete by using different sizes of rubble depending on what it was to be used for. Concrete was cheap to create and mass produce.
Concrete is a tough and reliable material, and it can be used for a wide range of projects. Eventually though, a structure made from this versatile material will need to be replaced. At the very least, it may require repairs.
Roman building using cement (Labate, 2016) dates from the third century BCE. Cement was used with crushed bricks and rock to produce concrete used for building. The cement was made from volcanic dust (pozzolana), lime (calcium oxide) or gypsum (calcium sulphate). This mixture reacts when mixed with water, binding the concrete into a permanent, strong, impermeable structure. The Roman engineers discovered that the use of cement in their mortar dramatically increased its strength. Special types of cement were discovered and used for under-water structures like harbors and bridge piers. Roman workmen perfected the skill of building with concrete, some of which, like the Parthenon, are still intact and beautiful to this day. During the first century CE, Rome had a “Concrete Revolution”, many concrete buildings being built as skill developed.
Concrete is used for many different things in daily life, although is often taken for granted. Concrete has a very deep history that leads us up to the modern day concrete and variations of. Most people will turn a blind eye, but at one point in history concrete was a stellar invention that had many different purposes and uses and still does today.
This material was concrete. Romans created a concrete mixture consisting of several materials such as lime and volcanic sand. The Romans had created a very strong and durable type of concrete. This substance combined with the design of the arch created a very strong building. Walls could also be built from the concrete. Along with bricks concrete would be place with in the wall to hold the bricks together making a more ridged structure. Aqueducts where then created which provided water to the cities. This made architects interested in the material and later on lead to larger and different structures. Soon several cultures adopted the Roman arch. Other cultures adapted the Roman arch and developed it further. Experimentation lead cultures to design pointed, scalloped, and horseshoe arches to symbolize mosques and palaces. The Roman arch was a very important solution to a very important issue of construction. The Roman arch also caused the Romans themselves to make further architectural developments. They combined arches to form ceilings or roofs called
One innovative concrete structure I have found that was unique to me was the Willis Tower, which is located in Chicago Illinois. Having nearly 350,000 employees, Sears Roebuck and Company decided to create a central office to fit all of their employees. The company decided to hire architects Skidmore, Owings and Merrill to design this enormous skyscraper. In the early 1970’s the project known as the Sears Tower begun. One unique fact about the Sears Tower was that it took only three years to complete a 1,729-foot tower (from base to tip), which I believe is impressive considering how fast it was built. After completion, the Sears Tower was known to be the tallest building in the world for about 25 years. Another unique fact about this skyscraper
In order to discuss concrete; one must first mention cement. Cement is a water-based binder used to bind other building materials together. It is used in the production of mortar and concrete during the construction process. Concrete is a material used in construction, made by mixing aggregate, cement, small stones and water. Cement is important because it hold structures together. Many sources states concrete was invented 1756 by a British Engineer named John Smeaton. He did so by mixing pebbles as a coarse aggregate into a powdered brick into the cement. Years layer in 1824, a English inventor named Mr Joseph Aspdin created the first true artificial cement by burning ground limestone and clay together. He is also noted for creating today’s popular concrete; Portland cement. Many buildings use concrete because of its strong element. It solidifies then hardens after mixing with water and placement due to the chemical process known as hydration. Water reacts with the cement, which bonds the other components together, eventually creating a stone-like material. Concrete is used to make pavements, pipe, various structures, foundations, roads, bridges, brick walls and so on. It is either produced site-cast or pre-cast. Site-cast Concrete is standard concrete that is poured into site-specific forms and cured on site; the concrete is created on the actually construction site. Precast concrete is a construction
Marble, stone, iron, reinforced concrete, and wood can bee seen throughout history and across the globe being used as major building materials. Marble can be seen being used in the United States to create a well known national monument, the Washington Monument in Washington D.C. Then marble can be seen being used again in the past when it was used to create the Parthenon, the ancient greek temple dedicated to the goddess Athena. Stone was used in creating one of the seven wonders of the world the Great pyramid of Giza a tomb that would be dedicated to Pharaoh Khufu. Later, during the Ancient Roman times stone would be used again to create the Colosseum that would host fights to the death. Iron can be found in Paris, France both in the prominent Eiffel tower and again in the Sainte-Geneviève Library. As for reinforced concrete that was used as a major material in two quite large projects La Sagrada Familia and the creation of the shells on the Sydney Opera House. Lastly, wood can be recognized in the construction of the ancient Buddhist temple the Horyuji Temple, and again in the Pancho Arena where Soccer is celebrated. Altogether these five major materials have created these renowned works of architecture that maybe otherwise we would not have today without