How did the "revolutionary-imperial paradigm" shape Soviet foreign policy during the early Cold War?
The defeat of Germany and its satellites in the war radically changed the balance of forces in the world. The Soviet Union became one of the leading world powers, without which, should not have been resolved then no question of international life. And so, its features began to have impact on world relations and became clearer for foreign diplomats and observers.
However, during the war U.S. power grew more and more being in the war years, the international lender, the United States had the opportunity to expand its influence in other countries and peoples. The USA became the most powerful democratic state. So, the US pretended now to be …show more content…
Workers of one of the country should support the proletarians of other countries. The Soviet Union, like Russia once, considered himself a guide only true doctrine. Orthodoxy took place only now Marxism. The Soviet Union abandoned the concept of world revolution, but considered it his duty to support the Communist Party in other states, or to establish communist regimes by the armed forces. This scenario has happened more often.
3) Stalin who belonged to special type of leaders. Stalin established a personal dictatorship. Stalin's dictatorship was a highly centralized regime, which relied primarily on the powerful party-state structure, terror and violence, as well as on the mechanisms of the ideological manipulation of society, the selection of privileged groups and the formation of pragmatic strategies. Marxism - Leninism, the ideological basis of Soviet power, on the basis of the Marxist view of the equality theory rejects the cult of the leader, limiting "the role of the individual in history." At the same time, the cult of the leader has its reason in practical socialism. Leninism was the cult of the leader of a new type; it puts forward the leader of the masses, vested with dictatorial powers. After the October Revolution of 1917 in Soviet Russia and the Soviet Union began to be used in the plural and the singular title of “leaders of the revolution” and simply “leaders”
The emergence of the cult of Stalin's personality is associated with
Joseph Stalin used his intellect, and power, to outmanoeuvre his rivals to become leader of the Soviet Union. Using carefully planned propaganda including, painting, statues, and a series of cultivated posters Stalin immortalised and glorified his leadership. These state-manufactured images created a ‘cult of personality' around him, subsequently, creating an image of a heroic worshipped figure, who was associated with every aspect of soviet society. Stalin controlled the media and according to the historian Moshe Lewin, Stalin single handily, ‘become the system,’ (Lewin in Pittaway, 2008, p.137.)
Between 1924 and 1945, Joseph Stalin was able to emerge as the leader of the USSR and maintain what Kruchev described as “the accumulation of immense and limitless power”. Stalin's rise to power was a combination of his ability to manipulate situations and the failure of others to prevent him from taking power, especially Leon Trotsky. Stalin ruled the USSR from 1929 until his death in 1953. His rule was one of tyranny, a great change from the society that his predecessor, Lenin, had envisioned. During his time of reign, Stalin put into effect two self-proclaimed "five-year
“I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.” This declaration, made by former President Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947, is part of the Truman Doctrine, and was the basis for U.S. involvement in Western Europe throughout the Cold War. Although the North Atlantic Treaty, and the resulting North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), was established during the Cold War “to keep the Russians out, the Americans in, and the Germans down,” NATO has persisted since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1990. This essay will seek to examine the U.S. decision to create and participate in NATO. It will begin by providing a history of NATO and the U.S. decision to participate in NATO before considering how this decision is both an instance of continuity and change in U.S. foreign policy since former President George Washington’s Farewell Address. The essay will conclude by considering the legacy of this decision and its impact on U.S. foreign policy. While this essay will consider the period of time leading up to the formation of NATO and will briefly touch on the present day, greatest consideration will be paid to the time period immediately preceding and following the formation of NATO in 1949.
Joseph Stalin greatly influenced Russia in the years 1924 through 1932. His rise to this power can be explained by the Russian Revolutionary experience that allowed him to gain authority in Russia. Although historians often refer to Stalin as a ruthless, mindless dictator, he redirected the Russian Revolution to major economic development. Stalin’s character in Russia during the Revolution catalyzed the many events that took place during the time period. Because of Stalin’s ability to both appeal to the masses, and take advantage of events, like Lenin’s death, Stalin was able to rise to power. Essentially, the Russian Revolution fostered the development of Stalin’s dictatorship leading the country into a state of economic growth and influence. The Revolution fostered Stalin’s ability to maintain a central leadership, use violence to gain control, and regenerate a previously disconnected economy.
World War II was full of conflicts between countries all over the world. Although most people only know things about the holocaust or Hitler 's affect on the World War II, there are other important events that have affected many countries. The Battle of Moscow was a major battle between the Soviet Union and Germany. Ironically, the Soviet Union and Germany previously had a secret agreement (the nonaggression pact) not to go to war on each other, but the promises turned to be broken when Germany 's plan to capture Moscow went into action. (German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact, History Site)
The concept of Stalinism, being the ideologies and policies adopted by Stalin, including centralization, totalitarianism and communism, impacted, to an extent, on the soviet state until 1941. After competing with prominent Bolshevik party members Stalin emerged as the sole leader of the party in 1929. From this moment, Stalinism pervaded every level of society. Despite the hindrance caused by the bureaucracy, the impact of Stalinism was achieved through the implementation of collectivization and the 5-year plans, Stalin’s Political domination and Cultural influence, including the ‘Cult of the Personality’. This therefore depicts the influence of Stalinism over the Soviet State in the period up to 1941.
Upon the creation of the USSR, Lenin introduced new rule that would ensure greater totalitarian control. Only communists would be able to stand for the soviets, and so this meant that the communist party had the true control over the
The role of America at the end of World War II was where the origins of policing the world originate. America had been engaged in a very costly war in terms of dollars as well as lives. But, despite the expense the United States came out of World War II better than any other nation that was involved. The Second World War was a battle between the Allied and Axis Powers. The Allied Powers consisted of the United States, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, China, and France. This war was seen as the fight against Nazi Germany, and therefore resulted in a majority of the battles fought on German and Russian soil. The aftermath left the Soviet Union in bad shape. Close to twenty million Russians
Thus, the “Cult of Personality” was flourishing. Propaganda glorifying Stalin and Soviet ideals brainwashed the minds of Russian people. Stalin successfully impressed his socialist philosophies on millions of workers and peasants. Over time, socialism transformed into Stalinism, and it took hold. Stalin was able to hypnotize people towards one belief, the love of Stalin. When they saw Stalin being portrayed heroically everyday in the news or on posters, they began to idolize him. Stalin is like Big Brother; he was the main focus and had total power over the people and their actions.
The USSR supports Communism. Communism is led by a prime minister and gives the people no choices. You may not choose who leads your country. The government decides your future you have no say in your job or your pay. Everything is decided for you like you’re a toddler. Most of the world today in democratic (including the USSR) and communism is dying out.
The revolution was an event that was constructed on a small scale of people that were made up of the Bolshevik party, for overturning the Provisional government into the Soviet Union. The revolution was a voluntarist revolution, as it explored the idea of individual agencies and the concept that the cause of an event is based on the actions of those participating themselves. For instance, in the October revolution, the uprising of the political change was due to the action of Lenin and the Bolshevik party. Without the participation of the party and the leadership of Lenin, the revolution would not have been executed in such magnitude. The October revolution is a voluntarist revolution for the following reasons, first, the leadership from Lenin, proved to be more progressive, compared to the traditional leaders at that time. Lenin instructed the affairs of the revolution in public, after writing the April These a speech that criticized the Provisional government and promoted that the Russian government falls under the Soviet Union. Lenin’s charismatic traits are essentially the reason behind the large amount of support that the Bolshevik party and the Soviet Union received, a famous line from the April These: “All Power to the Soviets”, was used in propaganda during the time of the revolution, it was a phrase that changed the course of
Although often overlooked World War 2 can arguably seen as the most critical event in the history of the Soviet Union. The result of the war was the epitome of Stalin’s vision of success for the Soviet Union. The War initially had a significantly positive impact on the Soviet Union in the short term, however the results and effects of the War were a factor that ultimately led to the collapse of the Soviet Union as a whole.
The traditional, orthodox interpretation places the responsibility of the Cold War on Stalin’s personality and on communist ideology. It claims that as long as Stalin and the authoritarian government were in power, a cold war was unavoidable. It argues that Stalin violated agreements that he had made at Yalta, imposed Soviet policy on Eastern European countries aiming at political domination and conspired to advocate communism throughout the world. As a result, United States officials were forced to respond to Soviet aggression with foreign policies such as the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan. Yet revisionists argue that there was “no proof of Stalin promoting communism outside Russia” and that Stalin’s decisions were first and foremost, pro-Soviet and not of communist intentions. Up until 1947, it is evident through Marshall Plan as well as statements and interviews made by Stalin that he was still thinking of cooperation with the United States, Britain and France. Despite post-war conflicts and instability of Soviet-American relations, the USSR’s initial embrace of the Marshall Plan at its announcement expressed
Joseph Stalin built up this love with the "Cult of Personality". He was glorified with giant statues and monuments. Stalin appeared daily on the cover of Soviet newspapers; he was in every facet of Soviet life. Daily visual imagery of Stalin portrayed him as a Georgian peasant, which emphasized socialist principles of power from the people. In addition, people called him “father and teacher of the peoples” (Runyan 66) and a deity, because he replaced the Czar and the Church. These daily images were engraved in the minds of the people. Thus, the “Cult of Personality” was flourishing. Propaganda glorifying Stalin and Soviet ideals brainwashed the minds of Russian people. Stalin successfully impressed his socialist philosophies on millions of workers and peasants. Over time, socialism transformed into Stalinism, and it took hold. Stalin was able to hypnotize people towards one belief, the love of Stalin. A simple cause and effect: they saw imagery of Stalin portrayed heroically everyday in the news or on posters and they began to idolize him. Stalin is like Big Brother; he was the focus and with the love and loyalty of his people, he had total power over them and their actions.
Initially the need for a world revolution dominated Bolshevik ideals to such an extent that foreign policy in the USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) was regarded as unnecessary. Soviet Policy was dominated by conflicting ideologies; the Marxist ideological view, and the Commissariat’s traditional policy theory. By co-operating with both mindsets, the Communist International, or Comintern, was created in order to work towards global revolution. In 1922, under the control of Vladimir Lenin, the Treaty of Rapallo was signed. This enabled both Germany and Russia to unite and benefit from one another’s trade and security, as well as providing each other with training aid and weapon testing grounds. In 1926, the USSR signed another treaty with Germany, the Treaty of Berlin, which promised that if either nation was at war with a third power, the other would remain neutral. However, whilst ties between Germany and the USSR were being created Britain posed as an unwanted burden to the Soviets as it renounced trade ties and diplomatic recognition of the communist regime. During this, on Russia’s Eastern border both China and Japan fought back against their Soviet counterparts. By 1934, the Soviet Union had joined the League of Nations, a League put in place to attempt to keep peace and relinquish violence within Europe. With the further rise of Germany’s Adolf Hitler, came the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact, however the treaty did not last long.