Hybrid Electric Vehicles ( Phevs )

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Abstract-Increased the numbers of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) can have a significant impact on distribution system performance, such as reduction in power quality and efficiency, increase in power losses and voltage variations, as well as an adverse impact on the customers’ energy price. This paper proposed approach evaluates the effect of integrating a large number of PHEV on power system operation as well as appropriate operation of PHEVs can improve the voltage profile in the network by eliminating the voltage drops in highly-loaded buses with discharging reactive power. Furthermore, the optimal placements for charging stations and renewable energy sources (RES) are identified. The objective function includes minimizing the cost of power delivery to the PHEVs, the reducing losses as well as minimizing the voltage deviation between different buses in distinct hours. For increasing the load factor of the network, special coefficient is introduced into the problem. The ratio between the hourly demand and the peak in the day-ahead load characteristic is multiplied with the electricity tariffs which lead the aggregators to charge their PHEVs in off-peak hours. For this purpose, Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm is presented for optimal planning of charging stations and RES. The proposed method is implemented in 69-bus radial distribution system (RDS).
1. Introduction
Renewable energy resources are attracting the attention of energy developers. Renewable energy

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