Essay on Hypokinetic and Hyperkinetic Dysarthria

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Hypokinetic and Hyperkinetic Dysarthria Hypokinetic Dysarthria and Hyperkinetic dysarthria are both neuromotor speech disorders. They are both associated with damage to the Basal Ganglia. In defining the word Hypokinetic, Hypo means “lack of” and kinetic means “movement”, forming the definition of a lack of movement. A person with Hypokinetic Dysarthria will show less movement, as seen throughout the speech musculature. In contrast Hyperkinetic Dysarthria means excessive movements of the speech mechanism. While someone with Hyperkinetic dysarthria will exhibit signs of involuntary and excessive movements, a person with Hypokinetic Dysarthria show signs of having less movement. In this paper I will define each dysarthria, discuss…show more content…
Bradykinesia and Hypokinesia contribute the most to the clinical signs of Hypokinetic Dysarthria. The leading cause of death for people with Parkinson’s disease is aspiration pneumonia. Aspiration Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lungs and airways due to breathing in foreign material such as foods and liquids (Penn-Brooks, Hedge p. 348). The signs and symptoms of Hypokinetic Dysarthria are monopitch, Reduced/low loudness(they do not realize how low they are talking), no stress variation, short rushes of speech, Dysphonia(voice disorder), rapid speech-it is important to know that Hypokinetic Dysarthria is the only motor speech impairment in which speech rate is faster rather than slow, perceptual problems, muscle rigidity(muscle resistance occurs throughout the range of motion), resting tremor, restriction of articulators, and Dysphagia-which is difficulty in swallowing (Penn-Brooks, Hedge p. 348). The Brain Based Communication Disorders states “A large number of movement disorders result in excessive, involuntary movements of the body. When those movements affect the components of speech, the result is Hyperkinetic Dysarthria” (Murdoch, p. 177). Hyperkinetic Dysarthria is a result from damage to the Basal Ganglia. The exact site of lesion is unknown (Murdoch p. 178). Damage to this neuromotor system results in a variety of

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