Importance of Curriculum Foundations

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Curriculum planning involves making a series of choices (Saylor, Alexander and Lewis, p. 27) In the process of curriculum planning the three bases of curriculum should be considered these bases are society, learner and knowledge. Each of these bases is equally important and cannot be neglected. They are like three legs of a tripod stand, if one leg is bigger than the other than the tripod cannot stand. Similarly each of these bases cannot be given more importance over than the other all have equal importance. Society can be understood through Sociology, Learner can be understood by Psychology and Knowledge can be understood through Philosophy. Thus in order to plan curriculum the foundations of curriculum play a major role.
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Another example can be the role of teacher as a model of truth and other abiding virtues like administering discipline, reinforcing discipline. Learning is the realization of goodness and truth.
Philosophical schools of thoughts
A part from these three questions we have five basic philosophies that lay the foundation of curriculum.
Idealism stresses that students acquire vital subject matter in an idea centered curriculum. Ideas consist of concepts and generalizations for students to acquire. Idealist believes that knowledge come from four sources i.e. revelation (spiritual books), authority (tribe leader), religious leaders and myths. Idealism focus on the constant effort to achieve perfection and the purpose of learning is to benefit the humanity rather than self engagement.
Example: Idealism is a strong reflection is the Sindh Text books, the verses from Holy Quran are quoted within the text. Teaching and learning process in Pakistani classrooms are from textbooks and knowledge comes from text books, subject matter is considered of high value in Pakistani society.

Realism is concerned with the world of ideas and anything that are fixed with establishing subject matter. Realists say that the matter is real and that the idea exists within the matter. Realists believe that there is nothing beyond scientific knowledge. Knowledge can be obtained from the use of sense and nature. Supernaturalism does not exist since it goes beyond sense data. (Edige &
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