Breathe. Breathe in and out slowly and deeply. When you get stressed, you release adrenaline, which produces more stress and makes you panic. But by breathing slowly and deeply, you can reduce adrenaline levels, helping to center your body and clear your mind. TIP: Follow the 4-3-5 rule. Breathe in for 4 seconds, hold for 3 seconds, and then release for 5 seconds. Repeat ten times.
In the world of psychology, we often associate the words “secure attachment” with early psychological studies examining children’s attachment to their caregivers. However, more recent research by Konrath, Chopik, Hsing, & O’Brien (2014) focuses instead on the various types of attachments that adult individuals form with others and how these attachments may be changing across generations. In this study, Konrath et al. (2014) found an increase in the proportion of insecure attachment styles, particularly the dismissive attachment style. This study defined these attachment styles according to how a person views oneself and others. In secure attachment styles, people hold positive views both of themselves and others. In dismissive attachment, the self is viewed favourably while others are viewed in a negative fashion (Konrath et al., 2014). The increase in dismissive attachment therefore corresponds to a decrease in a positive view of others across time. These findings by Konrath et al. (2014) may have implications going forward as our society faces the possibility of increased detachment and a weakening of the social bonds that define humanity as a whole.
The birth of Attachment theory began when Harlow realized that by studying the rhesus monkey you learn more about human behavior than by studying rats—Harlow believed that you could not test humans well because of the fact that it leads to ethical and scientific dilemmas. Therefore, with these notions in mind, he set out to find his hypothesis and disprove the dominating theories of his time—no easy task. Harlow poised his hypothesis on the fact that when you remove all social contact from the rhesus monkey they then start to develop psychopathology—as Harlow would say, “that this just goes to show that one can not have a psychosis unless there is a psychiatrist around to diagnose it” (Suomi, Horst, and Veer 359). Thus, his meaning was that social
Psychology Study Guide Chapter 1: Different types of psychologists (clinical, forensic, social, health, industrial etc) • Clinical: aim to reduce psychological distress. Anxiety, depression, relationship problems, addictions and relationships. • Forensic: applying theory to criminal investigations, understanding psychological problems associated with criminal behavior, and the treatment of criminals. • Social: The study of relations between people and groups. Thoughts, feelings and behaviors altered by others. typically explain human behavior as a result of the interaction of mental states and immediate social situations • Health: relatively new. Principles are used to help changes about people’s attitudes about health and illness.
A psychological perspective of attachment is a term to describe a reciprocal emotional tie that develops over time. There are many developmental theories relating themselves to attachment and deprivation and many arguments over the nature-nurture debate. However, the name that comes to the forefront of most minds when speaking of this topic is
Humans are complicated and so are our relationships. Attachment theory is a psychological modal used to guide clinical interventions to understand the long-term effects of interpersonal human relationships. However, this theory is not about relationships in general but is about human relations and the support seeking behavior in response to emotional trauma or threats (Vrtička & Vuilleumier,
This shift in thought suggested that human beings are biologically wired for connection because attachment to others improves our chances for survival and reproductive success. This theory of attachment also introduced a new explanation for pathology: not necessarily “bad mothers,” as Bowlby suggested – but, rather, unavailable caregivers. (Ein-Dor, Reizer, Shaver, & Dotan, 2012) Within this theoretical framework there are essentially two modes of attachment: secure and insecure. Of the two, insecure attachment has long been viewed as a contributing factor to a host of maladaptive behaviors, disorders, and cognitions (Ein-Dor & Doron, 2015). It is seen, historically, as something that needs repair. However, new literature is shedding light on an alternative interpretation of insecure attachment. This new interpretation suggests that insecure attachment can have adaptive qualities. This new theory falls under the moniker of social defense theory. This study seeks to further the empirical support for social defense theory by hypothesizing that insecure attachment has adaptive qualities that may be beneficial to group, as well as individual,
The target population for this study were forty White people from Colorado State University. The use of only white people was because they wanted to reflect the ethnic diversity of Colorado State University. In the year 2013-2014, Colorado State University undergraduates had 22,565 students and 74.36% considered them as white and 2.09% considered them as Black. In the second experiment, fifty-nine participants from Colorado State University participated in this experiment that had course credit in Introductory Psychology. This was a non-probability sample because this does not give all the individuals in the population equal chances of being selected. They only used one college and this college was not as diverse.
Coy, Green, and Davis (2011) examine the link of attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance. The effects of the attachment style whether being avoidant or anxious was measured and examined in a laboratory with a sample of 143 participants and of the 143, 60 were married couples. The presence of a romantic partner played a significant role in this research. Researchers came up with 4 different hypotheses. The first hypothesis predicted that with a participant who had a partner with anxiety, if the participant interacted alone their presence of anxiety is high they would explore for less time and report less positive affect versus to participants low in anxiety. Hypothesis two, predicted that, when exploring with the participant whose partner
According to the research done by Mario Mikulincer, there is a correlation between attachment style and the mental representation of the self. Six studies were done in order to determine the association between attachment style and multiple aspects of the mental representation of the self in adolescents. “Results indicated that secure and avoidant persons had a more positive view of themselves than anxious-ambivalent persons,” (Mikulincer 1995). Additionally, secure people were found to have a more balanced, complex, and organized self-structure than insecure people, either avoidant or anxious-ambivalent.
Attachment is a very important part of a child’s development it determines how a child may relate to other people later on in their lives. There have been known to be four attachment styles which are secure, avoidant, disorganized and ambivalent. Three of the styles were discovered by Mary Ainsworth and her famous “Strange Situation” study. Ainsworth performed a study where she would allow parents and children in a room and a stranger came in and then the parent would leave. They observed the child’s reaction, how the child coped and if the child would entertain the stranger (Ainsworth 1978).
Participants were recruited from a large, private university. Undergraduate students (100 women, 80 men, M = 20.5 years, age range: 18-37 years) enrolled in psychology courses were recruited using flyers handed out in their psychology courses. The researcher will introduce the purpose and goal of the research, give details about how their participation will contribute to the future research on attachment styles, and how relationships are affected by it. The researcher will distribute a flyer to professors to pass out in class and students can sign up if they want to participate. Participation will be anonymous and voluntary. Participants would be provided with a consent form informing the participants the decision to participate in this
In Psychology 101 we learned that research methods are used in order to understand our mental and behavioral processes by making observations in a systematic way, following strict rules of evidence and thinking critically about that evidence. This scientific research is based on theories (tentative explanations of observations in science), hypotheses (predictions based on a theory) and replication (testing a hypothesis in more than one study). Some of the different research methods are firstly, descriptive studies. Descriptive studies are studies that use survey methods, naturalistic observation and clinical methods. Another research method is correlational studies. Correlational studies are studies that help one to determine if a relationship exists between two or more variables and if so it tells one how strongly those two variables relate to one another. With in correlational studies one can have positive correlation (as one variable increases or decreases so does the other), negative correlation (variables go in opposite directions) or zero correlation (no relationship between the variables). Another research method is formal experiments. Formal experiments are studies that allow us to draw conclusions about how one variable may cause or have an effect on another variable. With in formal experiments there are four elements, which are the independent variable (variable that is manipulated or controlled), the dependent variable (variable that is measured), the experimental