Is Biofuel A Good Option Since Its Low Pollution?

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Abstract Biofuel has become the focus of society in recent years, because the discharge of CO2 has been increasing year after year, energy crisis and environment pollution problem stunted economic growth. To solve these problems, biofuel is a good option since its low pollution and renewability.
In 2010 the production of biofuels which provide 2.7% of fuels for transportation in the world reached 105 billion liters (Worldwatch Institute, 2011). The United States and Brazil were the largest producers of ethanol production with up to 90% of the global total output in 2010, and the top producer of biodiesel in 2010 was the EU with about 53% of the global biodiesel production (REN21, 2011). Butanol, as an important part of biofuels, has
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Ethanol has been the most widely used biofuel currently. However, when it is used in ignition cars, butanol contains more energy and has lower hygroscopic property and vapour pressure than ethanol when the volumes are same, by the way, soot emissions can be reduced for diesel fuel when butanol is added in. (Schwarz, 2007) In addition, butanol plays an important role in several fields, such as cosmetics, papermaking, medicine and lubricant. (Bettina Schiel-Bengelsdorf, 2013)
1.2 Escherichia coli The traditional way to produce butanol is using Clostridium acetobutylicum, an anaerobic bacterium with by-products such as butyrate, acetone, and ethanol during the process (Jones, 1986). So, it’s difficult to control the production of butanol and reach a reasonable yield. Compared with other bacterium, the rate of growth is relatively slow, this characteristic would cause problems for industrial fermentation. To improve the butanol yield and the production process, E. coli can be a good option. Escherichia coli is gram-negative and facultative anaerobic bacterium, the ideal conditions for the growth of the microorganism are 37°C and pH of 4.5-9.0 (KOTROLA, 1995). E. coli is very necessary in modern
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