Jean-Jacques Rousseau And Karl Marx

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Though modernity typically arrives with great promise for a better life for all, modern theorists like Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Karl Marx argue that with modernity actually causes individuals to less happy and less free. Rousseau, for example, believed that modern society created a new kind of moral inequality that lead to a collapse in happiness while Marx believed that capitalism (a modern economic system) lead to the division of two hostile classes. Contrarily, thinkers such as Constant and Mill have a significantly more positive outlook on modernity. Constant for example, felt that with modernity comes less oppression, more civil liberties and a truly representative government that operates based on the needs of its citizens while Mill believed a balance between individual liberties and a government that protected and enforced those liberties would allow for more personal freedom and overall happiness. Rousseau has a rather dismal view of modern society that stems from his beliefs that modernity leads to more ways in which inequality could be seen (Rousseau 181). Before social institutions of any kind existed, he explains that men existed in a state of nature where they were essentially equal (aside from physical differences like skin tone and height) (Rousseau 165). People lived the same lifestyle, ate the same foods, and had the same means of transportation and shelter. Once things like education were introduced, jobs became more complex, and the lifestyles which

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