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John Holland 's Theory Of Types

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John Holland’s theory of types is one of the most researched and frequently used theories of career development. Holland viewed career choice and career adjustment as an expression of one’s personality (Ohler & Levinson, 2012). Holland theorized that people express themselves through their interest and values, in their career choices and work experiences (Sharf, 2013). Holland posited the people are drawn to certain careers because of their personality preferences in addition to other variable like age, gender, culture, social economic status, and level of education, which are representative of the individual’s background (Patrick, Eliason, & Thompson, 2005). John Holland argued that people’s impressions and generalizations about work are usually accurate, and by researching these ‘stereotypes’ he concluded that people personalities can be matched to certain work environments (Sharf, 2013). Holland proposed that people’s satisfaction, success, and stability in the work environment is determined by the degree of congruence between one’s personality and one’s chosen occupation (Miller & Miller, 2005). Holland proposed that people can be categorized according to six personality types: Realistic (R), Investigative (I), Artistic (A), Social (S), Enterprising (E), and Conventional (C) (Ohler & Levinson, 2012). Realistic (R) Realistic personality types like to work with animals, tools, or machines. Realistic individuals generally avoid social activities, such as teaching,
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