Decent Essays
Moral Reasoning
- Aim: Equip students to become critically minded citizens who have the ability to think through the big moral and political questions we all confront as citizens

Kant (Deontology)
- Rejects utilitarianism: They were half right- of course we seek to avoid pain, and seek pleasure. But to think that pain and pleasure drives our behavior.
- Thinks that the individual person has a dignity that commands our respect- because we are rational beings, capable of reason.; and autonomous being- capable of acting and choosing freely. This sets us apart from physical creatures with appetites—animals.
- Freedom: Not absence of obstacles to getting what we want. Eg: Slave to satisfying those appetite and impulses.

1. Autonomy
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Okay to have sentiment or feelings supporting duty of doing right thing, as long as it’s not the reason for doing so.
- Determination of the will (Freedom)
Autonomous vs Heteronomous
A law we give ourselves: Reason. If reason determines my will, then the will becomes the power to choose independent of he dictates of nature, inclination, circumstance.
- There are 2 commands of reason
Categorical vs hypothetical
1. An imperative: an ought.
- Hypothetical imperative: use instrumental reason. Eg: if you want X then do Y (means ends reasoning)
- Categorical imperative: Without reference to or dependence on any further purpose

The categorical imperative (what does it command of us?)
3 formulas of categorical imperative:
1. The formula of universal law: Act only on that maxim (a rule that explains the reason for what you’re doing- a principle) whereby you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law.
- The reason you universalize is to see whether you’re privileging your needs over others. It’s the test of whether the maxim corresponds with categorical imperative, not the reason.
2. The formula of humanity as an end: We can’t base the categorical imperative on any interest, purposes or ends. Cos then it’ll only be relevant to the person’s ends they were. But suppose, however, there were something whose existence has in itself an absolute
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