Leading Ethical Theories Consequentialism Deontology Virtue Theory example Mill 's utilitarianism Kantian ethics Aristotle 's moral theory abstract description An action is right if it promotes the best consequences. An action is right if it is in accordance with a moral rule or principle. An action is right if it is what a virtuous agent would do in the circumstances. more concrete specification The best consequences are those in which happiness is maximized. A moral rule is one that is required by rationality. A virtuous agent is one who acts virtuously, that is, one who has and exercises the virtues. A virtue is a character trait a human being needs to flourish or live well. “Written by distinguished philosophical experts, these …show more content…
As a whole they testify to and exemplify the current vibrancy and richness of work in ethical theory.” —David Archard, Queen’s University Belfast “For students, this Guide provides helpful introductions to themes and topics which they are to study in more detail, and lucid surveys of other aspects of ethical theory. It will also be read with profit by academics unfamiliar with the field; some of the papers are not just guides, but original contributions, to the subject.” —Antony Duff, University of Stirling and University of Minnesota “The Guide provides a wide-ranging survey of the major topics in contemporary ethical theory and includes a good amount of new and important work. It should be of use to anyone wanting acquaintance with the subject in its current state.” —Barbara Herman, University of California at Los Angeles. Encourage, measure, and reward ethical leadership at multiple levels. Ethical leadership from the top is very important (because it creates an environment in which lower-level ethical leaders can flourish), but ethical leadership at the supervisory level has a huge impact on followers’ attitudes and behavior. Organizations may want to channel resources toward developing ethical leadership in their
This paper is going to discuss Ethics and Ethical Theories. It will include an introduction to ethical theories, virtue ethics, and care ethics. There will be sections discussing absolutism versus relativism, consequentialism versus deontological ethics, and lastly, free will versus determinism. It will also include a discussion about the study of morality and identify which of the approaches (Scientific, Philosophical, or Theological/Religious) are closest to my own personal beliefs. There will be a discussion regarding the three sources of ethics
This paper will first discuss briefly what ethics are and provide the definition for an ethical issue. An ethical leadership issue is identified and explained for this author’s practice area. We will then identify and discuss key strategies for leadership that are pertinent to the ethical issue. Next, empirical evidence which supports the strategies discussed will be analyzed. Then, the impact and importance of the strategies will be stated. The final step will be to provide a conclusion to the reader that summarizes the content and strategies.
This paper is about ethical decision making that involved a case study in a movie based on a true story. It is about a child named Lorenzo Odone, his disease, adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) and how both his parents relentlessly pursued to find treatment for him. Aside from Mr. and Mrs. Odones’ decision making, the doctors and scientists involved in Lorenzo’s treatment were just as affected. These characters were faced with ethical issues that arose when deciding proper course in finding treatment for Lorenzo’s ALD. This paper will discuss the four ethical theories of decision making seen in the movie and the effects it had not only on Lorenzo but everyone that was involved.
Virtue ethics is a normative theory whose foundations were laid by Aristotle. This theory approaches normative ethics in substantially different ways than consequentialist and deontological theories. In this essay, I will contrast and compare virtue ethics to utilitarianism, ethical egoism, and Kantianism to demonstrate these differences. There is one fundamental aspect of virtue ethics that sets it apart from the other theories I will discuss. For the sake of brevity and to avoid redundancy, I will address it separately. This is the fundamental difference between acting ethically within utilitarianism, egoism, and Kantianism. And being ethical within virtue ethics. The other theories seek to define the ethics of actions while virtue ethics does not judge actions in any way. The other theories deal with how we should act, while virtue ethics determines how we should be.
Many different views and concepts related to ethics are discussed by Schermerhorn and Bachrach in this week’s lecture. As leaders and managers, a detailed understanding of these concepts is essential to providing appropriate leadership, guidance, and role-modeling to our employees, peers, and customers. Ethics and ethical behavior are especially important based on the scrutiny placed on leaders and managers in today’s world of increasing mass communication, social media, and enhanced transparency.
The life of prisoners some may never know. There are those who care not to know what goes on behind that wired fence. We find that some people that are convicted of crimes that they did not commit. Some people would rather turn their heads to what actually happens in a prison institution, because they feel it is no concern of theirs. Innocent women and men face a disaster in life when they find their selves incarcerated in such facility as these. The treatment in prison facilities toward prisoners with health issues or those who develop health concerns that
When a person decides to take action in an event, an ethical standard is most likely in his or her core. Different theories can be examined to study ethics and how they play into a person’s life. No matter what theory is at play, a person’s worldview will always impact his or her ethical standards. For example, an atheist may have a different view on homelessness than a Christian. The atheist and Christian will take different actions, when confronted, because of these worldviews. The study of why we have ethics is called metaethics. Metaethics describes ethics itself to have a deeper understanding of ethics. Several ethical theories exist that our worlview impacts, one theory, metaethics, examines ethics itself which leads to certain
It is undeniably true that our actions are governed by systems of morality, and our actions all define our society. A society is constructed of moral values, actions, and laws; hence these aspects all strive to make it a stable one. In order to create peace and harmony, it is crucial that we do good deeds and perform ethical actions. However, what defines goodness? When is it that our actions deem ethical in terms of pleasure and happiness? Two important historical figures have provided two sets of ethical theories, a concrete moral system in Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals by Immanuel Kant and a utilitarianism system in Utilitarianism by John Stuart Mill. Both use strong arguments to help draw focus to different and possible perspectives to view a good society and discover basic moral norms. . Despite the essentially opposite viewpoints in their arguments, both serve an important contribution to our ethical viewpoints.
In Chapter 1 we discuss the Several Essential Moral Theories the first type of moral theory is consequentialism which is the theory that the rightness or wrongness of an action depends upon the consequences that it brings. One of the different versions to Consequentialism is Utilitarianism which is the theory that actions are righteous if they benefit the majority of others . The second moral theory is the Natural Law Theory which is the idea that actions ’s are only righteous if while performing these actions the individual does not violate the basic values of human life, human procreation, human knowledge and human sociability . The third Essential moral theory is the Kantian Moral Theory which is an example of deontological moral theory.
A type of ethical leadership is servant leadership. It takes the focus off of the individual leader. It is defined as “helping others to accomplish shared objectives by facilitating individual development, empowerment, and collective work that is consistent with the health and long-term welfare of followers” (Yukl, 2013, p. 348). By shifting the focus off of one’s self and showing this kind of care for subordinates, a leader can motivate, inspire trust, and increase job satisfaction. As long as a leader remains humble, transparent, and focused on the shared vision for the team, then he/she can positively influence an organization with this leadership style.
Ethics is the philosophical study of moral judgements (Solomon: 2010). Moral philosophy has long been dominated by two basic theories; deontology, inspired by Immanuel Kant, the eighteenth century philosopher and; utilitarianism or consequentialism, which derives its modern day instructions from eighteenth and nineteenth century philosophers Jeremey Bentham and J. S. Mills, respectively (Hursthouse:1999). Increasing dissatisfaction with these theories and their variants has led in recent years to the emergence of a different theory, the theory of virtue ethics (Statman: 1997). It can be argued that, of the ethical stances considered over the course of this subject, Aristotle’s Virtue Ethics as defined in his Nicomachean Ethics, is the most comprehensive. Unlike the other theories presented, which focus on principles or rules of action as the basis for morality, Aristotle presents us with a classic formulation, an alternative basis for ethical reasoning (Baker: 2013). In virtue ethics, the emphasis is on cultivating a virtuous character rather than following rules of action; that is, with philosophical consideration, it is decided which virtues would, in combination, comprise a fully developed excellent character, and how those virtues contribute to each other and to our overall character (Athanassoulis:2012). It is also known as the ethics of self-realisation (Solomon:2010).
There are numerous ethical theories supporting different moral perspectives of human actions. The various theories differ according to the way in which they require people to act, and in their fundamental arguments. Because of different perspectives and philosophical views, no ethical theory can be said to be superior to the other. The paper that follows describes and defends the ethical theory of utilitarianism.
Interestingly, this moral philosophy is not subjected to the flaws existing within the consequentialism and deontology. This is because this form of ethics is not aimed at achieving a set of defined moral principles by which people live. Virtue ethics, similar to the meta-ethics, deal with broader questions which relate to human behavior, moral values, and human happiness. Conversely, one shortcoming is that through the broader analysis, people are left with a wide room to establish their own flawed definitions of morality and virtuous human values. It, then, creates a large margin for human error in the process of establishing proper behaviors. For instance, under the virtue ethics, an individual is allowed to make a decision that he or she sees as morally upright based on their limited knowledge about how it affects others. The individual lacks a wider frame of knowledge that would help him or her realize that, ultimately, the decision may not actually be the right