LEAGUE OF NATIONS [FAILURES]-
While the League of Nations could celebrate its successes, the League had every reason to examine its failures and where it went wrong. These failures, especially in the 1930’s, cruelly exposed the weaknesses of the League of Nations and played a part in the outbreak of World War Two in 1939. During the 1920’s the failures of the League of Nations were essentially small-scale and did not threaten world peace. However they did set a marker – that the League of Nations could not solve problems if the protagonists did not ‘play the game’.
Article 11 of the League’s Covenant stated: "Any war or threat of war is a matter of concern to the whole League and the League shall take action that may safeguard peace." …show more content…
The Treaty of Versailles had ordered Weimar Germany to pay reparations for war damages. These could either be paid in money or in kind (goods to the value of a set amount). In 1922, the Germans failed to pay an instalment. They claimed that they simply could not rather than did not want to. The Allies refused to accept this and the anti-German feeling at this time was still strong. Both the French and the Belgium’s believed that some form of strong action was needed to ‘teach Germany a lesson’.
In 1923, contrary to League rules, the French and the Belgium’s invaded the Ruhr – Germany’s most important industrial zone. Within Europe, France was seen as a senior League member – like Britain – and the anti-German feeling that was felt throughout Europe allowed both France and Belgium to break their own rules as were introduced by the League. Here were two League members clearly breaking League rules and nothing was done about it.
For the League to enforce its will, it needed the support of its major backers in Europe, Britain and France. Yet France was one of the invaders and Britain was a major supporter of her. To other nations, it seemed that if you wanted to break League rules, you could. Few countries criticised what France and Belgium did. But the example they set for others in future years was obvious. The League clearly failed on this occasion, primarily because it was seen to be involved in breaking its own rules.
The border between Italy and Albania was far
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The League of Nations was established in 1919 after the deadly and devastating conflict of World War I. The nations of the world needed a way to rebuild and regain trust in one another after this worldwide atrocity. President Woodrow Wilson believed that an international peacekeeping organization, such as the League of Nations, could achieve this monumental goal. President Wilson was convinced that the League could prevent another wWorld wWar, preserve peace, and promote total disarmament among nations. Wilson went to the Treaty of Versailles negotiations with a Fourteen Point Plan for peace, but he sacrificed almost all of his plans so that the League of Nations could be established. This organization, however, would never live up to the President’s dreams for its success. Despite Woodrow Wilson’s support for the League of Nations, it failed as a peace keeping organization because the United States did not participate, its decision making process was ineffective, and it lacked an armed force to impose its decisions.
In addition, Hitler learnt that the League of Nations, itself a creation of the Treaty of Versailles failed to ensure collective security, and could possibly do nothing to impede his actions. The most crucial factor is that Woodrow Wilson himself, the creator of the League of Nations, was not allowed to join it by the Congress. Also, it proved to be ineffective at various occasions. It was first unsuccessful in 1931 during the Manchurian Crisis. The League of Nations sent a committee to investigate the situation and concluded that Japan had violated China’s security. Although they condemned Japan’s actions, there was not much Britain or
Finally, the irreconcilables were completely closed to the possibility of a League of Nations, as seen in William Borah’s speech in 1918, which harshly criticizes and mocks the league with hypocritical antitheses like “force to destroy force, conflict to prevent conflict, militarism to destroy militarism, war to prevent war” (Doc. A). The irreconcilable’s point of view is also illustrated by an image from the Tribune Media Services, which shows the U.S. Senate suddenly objecting to the marriage of the U.S. to foreign entanglement by the League of Nations on the basis of constitutional rights (Doc. E). According to the senate, the U.S. would be losing the right to go to war along with collective security if they joined the League of Nations. The position of European nations, specifically France and Britain, was of hostility towards Germany for the mass casualties, causing an unwillingness to pardon them from the guilt-clause.
The league of nations was created by the winners of WWI and was intended to prevent future world wars. The idea was created by the US president Woodrow Wilson. The League of Nations was supposed to be a council that included all the world nations to discuss topics and keep peace. This organization failed in stopping WWII. The League had multiple opportunities to stop the second world war, but failed miserably. The League of Nations had very limited authority on countries such as Japan, Italy, Germany and the USSR. “The main weapon of the League was to ask member countries to stop trading with aggressive countries”(Wheeler). The League of Nations was treated as a joke and could not enforce any of the rules that they set. The League had no authority because they had no army to threaten the aggressive countries. Additionally, countries such as Italy and Germany were not part of the League and therefore had no obligation to listen to them or make peace talks. If the League was set up in a better format and way to work it would not have failed and they could have been able to stop the second world
Aside from Hitler and the failure of the Treaty of Versailles, was the failure of the League of Nations. The League of Nations sole task was to ensure that war never broke out again. After seeing what a disaster World War One was, people thought the only was to
Many factors contribute to a group of people failing to accomplish a goal, but the stubbornness of participants often is a leading cause. The Senate’s failure to ratify the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 shows this idea, due to the feud between President Woodrow Wilson and the Internationalists, and Henry Cabot Lodge and the Reservationists. The Internationalists fully supported the passing of the Treaty of Versailles, whereas the Reservationists believed it was necessary to change the Treaty, specifically Article Ten. Similarly, Borah and the Irreconcilables believed that the League of Nations was in conflict with one of the ideals the nation was founded on; to not engage in foreign entanglements. As Senator William Borah, put it, the League
The United states should not have joined the league of nations in 1919. The United States shouldn’t have joined the league of nations because we would be supplying the troops and food a lot and not getting anything out of it, and we were in no danger of an attack.
Henry Cabot Lodge’s speech (Document B) expresses a more similar message to the political cartoon (Document C) because both sources oppose the League of Nations. The League of Nations was introduced in the Treaty of Versailles. This League provided a place for countries to meet, settle disputes peacefully, and punish any nation that broke the peace. At the time the league was introduced, there started to be a heated debate to weather the United States should be involved. Henry Cabot Lodge’s speech (Document B) has a similar message to the political cartoon because both of these sources prove that the League of NAtions is harmful or has a negative effect to the United States.
By the end of the first world war, the international community founded the League of Nations, the first international security organization with the primary goal of maintaining world peace. The first world war saw drastic increases in mankind 's capacity to kill other human beings and cause insurmountable harm to human society and culture. The human condition was drastically different. With a new world war on the horizon, the international community had decided to band together to form a way in which it could help exercise the correct legal disposition and formality to positively influence the world. An international body was crucial after the first world war in order to maintain peace and order as the world picked up the pieces from their injustices. This was also true after the Second world war where the world saw, again, how the cruelties of humanity had to be prevented in order for the international body to prevent the forming of higher casualty rates and human suffering.
As it was built on the unrealistic premise that nations would overlook their own interests in order to look after other members, the League of Nations and Collective Security was destined to fail. Nations were required to turn over their right to make decisions and foreign policies over to an international body so as to establish ‘internationalism.’ The requirements of the league are described by historian E.H Carr as being, overly optimistic, ‘hollow and without substance.’ The invasion of Abyssinia by Mussolini was the embodiment of the failure of Collective Security. Upon hearing of Mussolini’s intent to invade the smaller country, Britain and France decided to refrain from intervening as they hoped to make an ally of Italy and did not want Mussolini to break the Stresa Front and side with Hitler. Of course Italy did side with Hitler and through their idleness, set a precedent of inaction that encouraged Hitler and the axis powers to act. Similar examples of the failure of the League can also be seen in its response to Italy and Germany’s involvement in the Spanish Civil War and Japan’s invasion of Manchuria.
When Britain and France refused to allow immediate military equality for Germany during the Geneva Disarmament Conference, Germany ceased the negotiations and left the League of Nations. This step led to international isolation, but clever propaganda and reassurance of peace in form of different bilateral treaties managed to reduce it.
The League failed when attempting at worldwide disarmament. This barely even got started as the ‘Big 4’ only reduced their armed forces by a miniscule amount before worrying about self-defence. Britain’s excuse was it had to ‘protect’ other weaker nations. Only the Germans ended up disarming. This did not go down well, as these few selfish nations had put their own interests ahead of world peace, which was supposed to be their mission and purpose. The League lost respect for this, but this is their only large failure in the department of agreements and treaties.
However, the League, once secure used its representatives' power and presence as a threat, but did not follow through with such threats when major opposition arose. For example, in the 1930s, the League of Nations "possessed neither the will nor the means to stop them [fascist dictators in Italy, Germany, and Japan]" (Patterson, UN, 14). Although this organization did little to prevent the Second World War in 1939, it did pave the way for humanitarian aid efforts to refugees and helped to resolve a number of border disputes before the war.
"The League of Nations was doomed To failure from the start" Adam Jenner Many may believe that the League of Nations was doomed to failure as soon as the doors of their Geneva headquarters were opened; many may say that it was built on unstable foundations; that the very idea of it was a grave misjudgment by the powers that were. Indeed it is true that the League of Nations, when it was set up was marred with many fundamental flaws. The League of Nations was formed after the end of the First World War. It was an idea that President Wilson introduced as an international police force to maintain peace and to ensure the devastating atrocities like the First World War ever happening again. The principle mission of the League of Nations was to maintain World Peace. Their failure as the international peacekeeping organization to maintain world peace brought the outbreak of Second World War. Their failure in policing and preventing peace in settling disputes throughout Europe, erupted into the most devastating war ever. Through my analysis of the failures of the League of Nations to maintain world peace, my arguments will demonstrate the understandings of the reasons and events that created the most devastating environment for the Second World War.