Listening And Listening With Hearing Loss

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Rationale: For individuals with normal-hearing, listening is typically an unforced process; however, for individuals with hearing loss, listening can evoke feelings of stress and fatigue. Individuals with hearing loss use increased levels of concentration to decode speech in a variety of listening environments. With increased levels of concentration, listening not only becomes a challenge for individuals with hearing loss, but it also diminishes their cognitive abilities to multi-task. Research regarding listening effort is limited; therefore, concrete definitions for listening effort and listening-related fatigue (LRF) have yet to be established. Using working definitions, various methods have been used in research to measure listening effort and LRF. Research Questions: 1. What is listening effort? 2. What is listening-related fatigue? 3. How have listening effort and listening-related fatigue been measured and what assumptions can be made about each technique? Methods: Participants ranged from children to adults. Participants had both normal-hearing and hearing impairments. The techniques used to measure listening effort and LRF were divided into three categories: self-report, behavioral measures, and physiological measures. Self-reports for listening effort and LRF are often administered as closed-set questionnaires or types of rating scales. A rating scale may instruct participants to rate statements from 0 to 10, 0 representing less difficulty and 10

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