Malaria, a treatable and preventable disease, is still a major public health threat in spite of years of numerous control and intervention strategies. In 2015, the World Health Organization reported 214 million new malaria cases and more than 430,000 malaria related deaths. Sub-Saharan Africa accounted for 88% of the new cases and 90% of the deaths, with pregnant women and children under five being at the highest risk of infection. Malaria is a devastating disease that accounts for about 10% overall disease burden in Africa and more than 40% public health expenditure (Ntonifor & Veyufambom, 2016). The high malaria incident rate in sub-Saharan Africa is attributed to high transmission rates from highly efficient vectors. Hence the World Health Organization recommends vector control and other prevention strategies like use of long lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs), indoor residual spraying (IRS), and intermittent preventative treatment. This literature review will analyze past studies and World Health Organization reports to examine adverse outcomes of malaria infection among different populations, common interventions that have been used to control malaria infections, challenges faced in malaria prevention, and prioritizing strategies to control and prevent Malaria in Africa.
Adverse outcomes of Malaria infection in Africa
Past studies have documented the adverse impacts of malaria in Africa on various populations and these are reviewed below;