Managing Anxiety While Undergoing Diagnosic Evaluation for Breast Cancer
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. In 2008, more than one million women underwent a diagnostic evaluation for suspected breast cancer. Approximately 182,500 women of the more than one million that received an evaluation also received a positive diagnosis (Montgomery, 2010). Risk factors linked to Breast Cancer include: gender, age, family history, prior breast cancer, previous biopsy, race and ethnicity, breast density, and long menstrual history because of prolonged hormonal stimulation. Modifiable related risk factors also include hormone replacement therapy, alcohol, weight, and physical …show more content…
Assessment Distress and uncertainty of an impending diagnostic result begins at the point of discovery, and continues until diagnosis (Montomery, 2010). Healthcare providers can care for patients during this time with proper assessment which includes the use of anxiety measurement tools, as well as providing emotional support. Assessments should begin with a review of critical preexisting social support systems in a woman’s life. By reviewing her support system that includes diagnosis-specific others, family, and friends you can acquire necessary information and become connected with the patient. Social support has been reported as being a crucial positive coping resource effective in providing comfort and decreasing anxiety. In addition to support systems, an assessment of a woman’s inner strength related to well-being should be done. Assessing inner strength can be done by evaluating various personality traits that include, resiliency, optimism, a problem-solving attitude, humor, a spiritual dimension and an individual’s sense of purpose. Personality traits have been found to correlate with lower anxiety levels and a more positive expectation for the outcome. While no methods of measurement exist to specifically measure uncertainty, well-validated quantitative tools measuring emotional responses, depression, optimism,
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Over the past decade breast cancer has become one of the most predominant diseases in the United States. Breast cancer starts out as a malignant tumor in the tissues of the breast which is formed from the uncontrolled growth of abnormal breast cells. Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, but it can also appear in men. (Stephan, 2010)
Breast cancer is the most diagnosed cancer among women. Despite the many technological advances that have been made to detect breast cancer at earlier stages, it continues to kill more women than any other cancer. Breast cancer affects all women, but the mortality rates from it are significantly higher in Black women than any other group (Hunt, Whitman, & Hurlbert, 2013). These rates are especially concerning when considering that White women are diagnosed at much higher rates.
Understanding ways to prevent breast cancer are important for all women to know and discern. Every woman is at risk of developing breast cancer, however, the risk is not equal among all women. “Some breast cancer risk factors, such as gender and family history, are not changeable. Other risk factors, like age, become more important as a woman grows older. Some of the following lifestyle characteristics could reduce the chance of developing breast cancer. Characteristics include exercise at least one and a half hours a week, maintaining a healthy body weight, and taking Aspirin or Ibuprofen twice a week can lower your chances of developing breast cancer. Alcohol consumption more than doubles the risk of women obtaining breast cancer, and smoking shows increased rates of breast cancer”(Holmes par 1). Some women may not be genetically proven to develop breast cancer, but that doesn’t mean the individual will not get cancer
Generally speaking, throughout the United States, Cancer is a public health concern that has a significant impact amongst both men and women. At the same time, Breast Cancer indicates development of a tumor from cells in the breast known as a malignant tumor. Breast Cancer can begin at two different points, either the cells of the lobules, that are milk-producing glands, or the ducts, a channel draining milk from the lobule to the nipple (“What is Breast Cancer,” 2016). Specifically speaking about Breast Cancer among women, according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2016), it is the most common cancer, regardless of ethnicity or race. Under those
Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in American women (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2017). However, regular screening and mammograms can help reduce the mortality rates of breast cancer patients (LaPorta, et al., 2017). Signs and symptoms of breast cancer may include lumps, abnormal changes to the nipple, abnormal discharge from the nipple, or change in color of the breast or part of the breast (Asuquo and Olajide, 2015). There are many factors that can put women at risk of developing breast cancer, the two most common being growing older and being female (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2017). Other risk factors can include things such as a
Due to the extreme changes in Vanessa’s life, the therapist has chosen to administer the Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI-II), as well as Beck’s Anxiety Inventory Tests (BAI). Both tests will determine if the client’s feelings in the past week to two weeks are symptoms of either depression or anxiety. Depending on her score on the BDI-II, she could be experiencing minimal, mild, moderate, to severe depression. The BAI will indicate whether the client is experiencing minimal, mild, moderate, to severe anxiety. These tests should help the therapist in providing the best treatment plan for the
Breast cancer is a leading cause of death of women, secondary only to heart disease. Breast cancer will affect one of every eight women or approximately 12% of the population. In 2016 there are 246,660 new cases of invasive breast cancer that will be diagnosed as well as 46,000 cases of breast cancer in situ in women. Additionally, there are 2,600 cases of breast cancer that will be found in men. Breast cancer rates have been decreasing since the year 2000. This is thought to be partially due to increased screening measures as well as discontinuing the use of hormone replacement therapy. There was as positive link established between hormone therapy
I realized that I myself have not dealt with a patient who has just found out about a diagnosis of a specific cancer. It was hard to identify with his patient personally in an emotional/physical way. Since I had not dealt with this previously, I tried to put myself in her shoes and to realize and take into consideration everything she was saying. I asked her what it feels like within her body and what her pain characteristics were. She stated “aching and constant pain all over” as an example of how she herself would describe her pain. I also wanted to change any stimuli that may have been a trigger. I decreased the stimulation by closing the blinds, lights, turning the volume down of the TV, helping the patient back to bed, and closing the door (which the patient agreed to and verbalized it was helpful).
Lang, A. J., Norman, S. B., Means-Christensen, A., & Stein, M. B. (2009). Abbreviated brief symptom inventory for use as an anxiety and depression screening instrument in primary care. Depression & Anxiety, 26(6),
Jill reported increased capacity in managing stressful situations and emotions. This was evident in her ability to follow through on coping skills discussed and when using a subjective scale to assess moods she reported improved moods. Jill reported mood changes to be related to interventions in our sessions and being consistent with her anti-depressant prescription. Jill also reported a reduction in her anxiety attacks. Due to Jill addressing underlying issues related to her drinking and feeling heard, she was able to pursue employment counselling and had started a job placement with Leads Employment Services which further increased her confidence. Jill’s self-care improved and that was she presented in clean clothing and had started to wear make-up to appointments. She reported practicing self-care often and had treated herself to a haircut.
The Cope Inventory was develop to assess clients on how clients would respond to stressful events in their lives. The COPE inventory has sixty questions that need to be answered honestly. This learner answered all the questions in order, 1 – 60 (Carver et al., 1989). Some of the questions mean different stressors to different people. This assessment helps people to learn something about themselves. I scored each scale and determined what number that I would relate myself to doing.
Background: Cancer is one among the life threatening diseases in present days it has biological, psychological and sociological impact on individual’s life. People living with this deadly disease have numerous psychological abnormalities like stress, depression and anxiety. The present study aimed to investigate the levels of anxiety and depression among cancer and non cancer patients. Methods: 80 patients were randomly selected among them 40 were cancer patients and 40 were non cancer patients. The Sinha’s Anxiety scale and Depression scale constructed by Karim & Tiwari was used to measure the anxiety and Depression among patients. For statistical analysis independent sample t-Test was applied. Findings: The results show significant differences between the mean scores of cancer and non cancer patients in respect to anxiety and depression. Conclusion: On the basis of our results we may concluded that cancer patients have higher levels of anxiety and depression than non cancerous patients.
Such findings, all of which relate to hormone-based life events, suggest that breast cancer is somehow affected by prolonged exposure to female sex hormones, such as estrogen. Women with a history of breast cancer in the family are also at greater risk. About five percent of all breast cancers have been attributed to a mutated, or structurally altered, gene known as BRCA1. Mutations in a second gene, BRCA2, contribute significantly to the development of breast cancer in Jewish women. Alcohol, high levels of fat in the diet, and not exercising regularly have also been linked to increased risk for breast cancer (Garber).
According to the American Cancer Society, Each year, more than 200,000 women are diagnosed with breast cancer; furthermore Twelve percent of all women will contract the disease, and 3.5% of them will die from breast cancer (American Cancer Society, 2005). There are risk factors that may lead to breast cancer. There are 4 stages of breast cancer and several treatments, although treatments vary from types and stages of breast cancer. Breast cancer is the leading cause of death among women who are 40 to 55 years old (Breast Cancer, 2009).Cancer occurs when cells divide uncontrollably. It changes from a normal cell to cancerous cells that require gene alterations. Therefore the altered genes and the uncontrolled growth may lead to tumors.
Breast cancer accounts for one third of all new cancer diagnoses in the United States (Cauley, et al., 2007). The first sign in the process of this disease is a lump that forms around the breasts. For this reason, it is necessary to get the yearly mammograms once a woman reaches a certain age. Also, monthly self-examinations can aid in finding breast cancer early. If this condition is found early enough, chances of survival are abundant. Most women who get breast cancer are older than 50 with 86% of the deaths occurring in this age group (Cauley, et al., 2007). Postmenopausal women have a higher risk for breast cancer, because the risk increases when levels of endogenous estradiol rise (Cauley, et al., 2007). Breast cancer is the most common cancer that occurs in women. This epidemic has a higher incidence rate among white women than in African American women, but African American women have a higher mortality rate (Breast Cancer Risk Factors, 2010). White women are more apt to develop this disease than any other ethnicity. However, in women under 45, breast cancer is more common in African American women (Breast Cancer Risk Factors, 2010).