Meeting the Needs of Students With Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

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Several researchers have estimated that Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder effects between 5 and 10% of school aged children (Aguiar, Eubig, & Schantz, 2010; Modesto-Lowe, Danforth, & Brooks, 2008; Schroeder & Kelley, 2009). It is the most frequently diagnosed childhood neurobehavioral disorder (Aguiar, Eubig, & Schantz, 2010). Students with ADHD exhibit developmentally inappropriate levels of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention (Modesto-Lowe, Danforth, & Brooks, 2008). Typically, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) is used to diagnose ADHD. The DSM-IV classifies ADHD into 3 subtypes: predominately inattentive (ADHD-PI); predominately hyperactive-impulsive (ADHD-PH); and combined (ADHD-C)…show more content…
Leaves seat in classroom or in other situations in which remaining seated is expected 3. Runs about or climbs excessively in situations in which it is inappropriate 4. Has difficulty awaiting turn 5. Is “on the go” or acts as if “driven by a motor” 6. Talks excessively 7. Blurts out answers before questions have been completed 8. Has difficulty awaiting turn 9. Interrupts or intrudes on others Combined Dimension (ADHD-C) 1. At least six symptoms from ADHD-PI and ADHD-PH (DSM IV as cited in Aguiar, et al., 2010 p. 1652) While the DSM-IV is regularly used for the diagnosis of ADHD, several theories exist as to the cause of the disorder (Wright, Shelton, & Wright, 2009). Barkley’s Unified Theory proposes that the primary deficit in ADHD is self-control or self-regulation (Rabiner, 2008). Self-regulation is an executive function. Executive functions provide the framework in which human cognitions operate (Wright, et al, 2009). Working memory, response inhibition, error correction, and goal directed behavior are all executive functions that enable an individual to plan the steps needed to attain a goal, use the steps to work on the goal, monitor progress toward goal attainment, and adjust the steps as needed (Aguiar, et al, 2010). Barkley suggests that it is not that children with ADHD lack the skills or knowledge to be successful but rather, that biological factors limit their ability to self-regulate, which is necessary for successful behavior (Rabiner,
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