Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly, accounting for 65–70% of all cases (Jellinger, Janetzky, Attems, & Kienzl, 2008). The other dementias are of the Parkinson 's group, the fronto-temporal group and the vascular group. The total worldwide yearly costs for the treatment and care of patients suffering from dementia are estimated to be around 250 billion US dollars. The lifetime risk for AD between the ages of 65 and 100 is 33% for men and 45% for women with an annual increase of 1–2% in the seventh decade to almost 60% in the 10th decade with doubling every 5 years (Jellinger et al., 2008). AD is incurable, and thus represents a major public health problem. AD represents a challenge to humanity due to its relatively recent discovery, progressive nature of the illness, and complex diagnosis.
Simon Douglas is a clinical research nurse at the Wolfson Research Centre in Newcastle upon Tyne. He is currently coordinating a number of studies, particularly on dementia in nursing and residential homes and providing input into a new trial of non-pharmacological interventions for dementia. Ian James is a consultant clinical psychologist at the Centre for the Health of the Elderly at Newcastle General Hospital and a
The FDA recently has allowed two treatments to be used for Alzheimer patients. One of the treatments is a Partial Glutamate Antagonist, which is an important transmitter to the brain. It is said that Glutamate helps patients more than sugar pills do, however; it is said that too much
Alzheimer’s disease is a prominent brain disease that effects a massive amount of individuals in the United States. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States, accounting for 60-80% of dementia cases, with no chance of being cured, prevented or decelerating over time (Alzheimer’s Association, 2014). AD is the most well-known form of dementia, causing complications in brain function in the areas of memory, thinking, and behavior (Alzheimer’s Association, 2014). In an effort to gain a deeper understanding of Alzheimer’s disease, researchers create new knowledge about the disease, which is then distributed to the public. The goal in this information disbursement is to find new and inventive ways to treat AD, prevent AD from progressing at such a rapid pace, and aid in the quality of life in those diagnosed with AD as well as caregivers and medical professionals providing treatment to individuals’ with AD.
Alzheimer’s disease is a complex illness that affects the brain tissue directly and undergoes gradual memory and behavioral changes which makes it difficult to diagnose. It is known to be the most common form of dementia and is irreversible. Over four million older Americans have Alzheimer’s, and that number is expected to triple in the next twenty years as more people live into their eighties and nineties. (Johnson, 1989). There is still no cure for Alzheimer’s but throughout the past few years a lot of progress has been made.
With the growing number of people becoming diagnosed, and experiencing symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease, we must begin to take precautions and somehow attempt to gain knowledge of how the disease can be better treated, and ultimately prevented.
Gamma-Aminobutyric acid commonly referred to as GABA, and glutamate make up around 80 percent of the neurotransmitters found in brain. GABA dampens the activity in the brain while
The second neurotransmitter family includes amino acids, compounds that contain both an amino group (NH2) and a carboxylic acid group (COOH) and which are also the building blocks of peptides and proteins. The amino acids known to serve as neurotransmitters are glycine, glutamic and aspartic acids, all present in all proteins, and gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA), produced only in brain neurons. Glutamic acid and GABA are the most abundant neurotransmitters within the central nervous system, particularly in the cerebral cortex; glutamic acid tends to be excitatory and GABA inhibitory. Aspartic acid and glycine subserve these functions in the spinal cord (Cooper, Bloom, and Roth 1996).
Apart from donepezil HCl (or brand name Aricept), there exist several other drugs prescribed to treat the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease. Similar FDA approved drugs include galantamine, memantine, rivastigmine, and a donepezil and memantine mixture branded under the name Namzaric. Rivastigmine and
Alzheimer's Disease is a condition that affects 50% of the population over the age of eighty five, which equals four million Americans each year. It is becoming an important and high-profile issue in today's society for everyone. There are rapid advancements being made in the fight against this disease now more than ever, and the purpose of this essay is to educate the public on the background as well as the new discoveries. There are many new drugs that are being tested and studied every day which slow down, and may even halt the progress of the disease.
The manuscript entitled “Effect of memantine on post-operative cognitive dysfunction after cardiac surgeries: a randomized clinical trial” was reviewed again, there are two comments as follows:
Meprobamate is a short-acting sedative-hypnotic. Therefore, withdrawal smptoms appear between 12 and 24 hours after the last dose and peak between 24 and 72 hours. For long-acting drugs (e.g., phenobarbital, prazepam, chlordiazepoxide, and diazepam), withdrawal symptoms peak between the fifth and eighth