Middlemen and Middlewomen
Middlemen and middlewomen, play a large role in the migration and recruitment of underage girls and women. The process of recruitment is often deceitful and the bind of servitude to the middleman occurs through “debts, withholding of legal documents such as passports, signing blank contracts,” etc. (Parreñas, 2011). The underage girls and women are generally young, uneducated and easily manipulated by recruiters (Kara, 2009). The background of the recruiters varies by gender, type of market they are recruiting for and whether they are part of a small recruitment network or a large organized crime entity.
Piper (2005) discovered that in the Mekong sub-region trafficking resembles more of a cottage industry where recruiters are often local individuals who have established a relationship with the families of the recruited girls. On the other hand, the exploitative services recruited for can vary from prostituting in Rome to bonded labor inside a factory in India. Additionally, Kara (2009) provides an illustration of broken promises by recruiters to two underage girls. Julia, now 17 and pregnant, arrived in Rome from Romania at age 14 (Kara, 2009). She traveled with Alyssa who was also, the same age (Kara, 2009). They traveled together with the help of a man who promised work in a restaurant, but instead they ended up as prostitutes in the streets of Rome (Kara, 2009).
A second example, includes the recruitment by “sub-agents” of girls ages