Compare and contrast the multi-store model of memory with the working memory model.
This essay will firstly briefly describe the theories and important facts about the original multi-store model of memory (MSM) and the working memory model (WMM).
This essay will then evaluate the key studies within these two models and explain the strengths and weaknesses of the main theories.
The final part of this essay will be to examine the similarities and differences between the two models.
The first issue that needs to be addressed however is what exactly is memory? “ Without memory we would be servants of the moment, with nothing but our innate reflexes to help us deal with the world. There would be no language, no art, no science, no …show more content…
The existence of sensory memory was proven by Sperling (1960), in this experiment Sperling discovered that after showing the participants a series of letters for less than a second they where then asked to recall as many letters as possible but on average they only could recall about 36%. According to Lloyd et al (1984) about 5% of all of a persons memories that are stored in their sensory memory are transferred to their short-term memory.
The short-term memory allows a person to store the information for long enough for it to be used, the short-term memory can also be called the working memory however this term later came to have a different meaning. The short-term memory however only has a limited capacity to store information; Miller (1956) claims that in order to save space in a person’s short-term memory they chunk information together but despite this space saving the short-term memory can only hold seven plus or minus two of these chunks of information. According to Atkinson and Shiffrin (1971) this information can be stored unaided for about 15-30 seconds, this time frame can be extended by rehearsal.
It is commonly accepted that a person’s long-term memory has an unlimited capacity to store information; this information can effectively be stored for the persons entire life if needed. Bower (1975) claims that among other information that is stored within a person’s long-term memory are five key pieces of information. “ A spatial model of the world
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People rely on incoming information and stored information to perform their everyday functions. However, humans have a natural capacity of how much information they can attain. We are unable to store all of our acquired information without different systems that organize our information. Working memory is one of these systems that temporarily holds and manages information for cognitive processing (119). Baddeley’s working memory model is made up of four components that allow for temporary information to be stored (109).
Memory is divided into three categories. These categories consist of: sensory memory, short term memory and long term memory, out of these short term memory is the main focus in this essay. It has been widely researched due to interest of how much memory can be stored, how long this memory can be stored for and what information is memorised.
“Information flows from the outside world through our sight, hearing smelling, tasting and touch sensors. Memory is simply ways we store and recall things we 've sensed.” When we recall memories, the original neuron path that we used to sense the experience that we are recalling is refined, and the connection is made stronger. Sensory information in stored for only a few seconds in the cortex of the brain. This information can then progress to short-term memory, and then long-term memory, depending on the importance of the information received.
The multi-store model of memory (eg, Atkinson and Shiffrin 1968) claims the memory can be sectioned into three distinctive parts: sensory store, short-term store (STM) and long-term store (LTM). Eysenck and Keane (2005:190) states that data is first encountered by the sensory store, then depending on the attention given, is processed to the STM and finally - if rehearsed - continues to the LTM.
George A. Miller, one of the founders of cognitive psychology, is considered a pioneer who recognized that the human mind can be understood by using an information-processing model. Miller was also a leader in the story short-term memory. In Miller’s most famous article, “The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two” remains one of the most frequently cited papers in the field of psychology. In his article, Miller proposed that short-term memory is subject to certain limits, including the span of information that can be stored at a given time. provides evidence for the capacity of short term memory.
Working Memory is STM. In contrast to the Multi-Store Model, where all the information goes to one single store (Unitary store), there are different systems for the different types of information. Working Memory consists of
Atkinson’s and Shiffrin’s (1968) multi-store model was extremely successful in terms of the amount of research it generated. However, as a result of this research, it became apparent that there were a number of problems with their ideas concerning the characteristics of short-term memory. Building on this research, Baddeley and Hitch (1974) developed an alternative model of short-term memory which they called working memory. Baddeley and Hitch (1974) argued that the picture of short-term memory (STM) provided by the Multi-Store Model is far too simple. According to the Multi-Store Model, STM holds limited amounts of information for short periods of time with relatively little processing. It is
Memory in the human brain is a complex process which is easier understood by the use of theoretical constructs. Memories begin as sensory stimuli which become sensory memory which only last about one second, from there it moves into working memory which lasts for about twenty to thirty seconds and is used to process information. Within working memory there are a few separate processes, the central executive which directs attention, the episodic buffer which is a secondary storage lasting ten to twenty seconds, this area communicates with long term memory as well as the central executive. The visuospatial sketchpad which is used to visualise visual and spacial
The first model is the multi store model. It was first proposed by Atkinson and Shiffrin in 1968 and is a typical example of the information-processing approach. According to this model, memory consists of three types of memory stores: sensory stores, short-term store and long term store. Sensory stores consist of the eyes, nose, fingers, tongue, etc and the corresponding area of the brain. The sensory stores
Baddeley and Hitch (1974) criticised the multi-store model for being a very simplistic view of memory. They saw short term memory as a store that had many individual sections inside it. This was supported by patient KF who had epilepsy, the doctor wanted to try and remedy this by removing his hippocampus. This surgery was done, however instead of fixing his epilepsy, it damaged his short term memory, yet he still had his long term memory intact. In the multi-store model it states that in order to have long term memory, one needs to have gone through the several stores, such as the sensory memory store, the short term memory and then by adding meaning and rehearsal, into the long term memory store. Seen as patient KF could still encode long
Sensory memories are momentary recordings of information in our sensory systems. They are memories evoked through a person's five senses: sight, smell, sound, taste, and touch. Although sensory memory is very brief, different sensory memories last for different amounts of time. Iconic
Memory has different parts in the memory system including sensory, short and long memories. Each type has a different time span and is broken down for different purposes for memorizing. Sensory memory occupies material for one to two
This essay addresses the working memory model which was proposed by Baddeley and Hitch (1974 in Smith & Kosslyn, 2007) as a response to Atkinson and Shiffrins (1968 in Smith, 2007) multi-store model. According to Baddely and Hitch the multi-store model failed to explain most of the complexities of the human memory and viewed it as being too simplistic. They argued that the short term memory store must have more components rather it being a single inflexible store as suggested previously by Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968). The working memory model is therefore an enhancement of the multi store model. According to Baddeley and Hitch working memory is a limited- capacity system that stores and processes information.
Memory makes us. It is, to an extent, a collection of unique and personal experiences that we, as individuals, have amassed over our lifetime. It is what connects us to our past and what shapes our present and the future. If we are unable remember the what, when, where, and who of our everyday lives, our level of functioning would be greatly impacted. Memory is defined as or recognized as the “sum or total of what we remember.” Memory provides us the ability to learn and adjust to or from prior experiences. In addition, memory or our ability to remember plays an integral role in the building and sustaining of relationships. Additionally, memory is also a process; it is how we internalize and store our external environment and experiences. It entails the capacity to remember past experiences, and the process of recalling previous experiences, information, impressions, habits and skills to awareness. It is the storage of materials learned and/or retained from our experiences. This fact is demonstrated by the modification, adjustment and/or adaptation of structure or behavior. Furthermore, we as individuals, envision thoughts and ideas of the present through short-term memory, or in our working memory, we warehouse past experiences and learned values in long-term memory, also referred to as episodic or semantic memory. Most importantly, memory is malleable and it is intimately linked to our sense of identity and where we believe we belong in the world.
In general, there are three types of memory: sensory memory, short-term memory and long-term memory. Sensory memory, by definition, is the preservation of information in its original sensory form, for a fraction of a second. This means that when you smell, touch and/or see anything, the impression of the occurrence will last for a couple of moments. This