My Central Nervous System ( Cns )

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Introduction and Clinical Manifestations The brain and spinal cord make up the central nervous system (CNS), with the brain coordinating higher-level functions and the spinal cord relaying information from and to the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The CNS is contained within the dorsal cavity, with the brain protected by the skull and the spinal cord protected by the vertebrae. Despite this, injuries to the CNS are a global health problem because of the inability of central neurons to regenerate, unlike peripheral neurons. Injury to the CNS is initiated by mechanical impact, but the resulting cellular processes and biochemical events contribute significantly to the pathophysiology. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and traumatic spinal cord…show more content…
To determine the level of injury, SCI is further divided by location of the injury by the vertebra closest to the injury: cervical, thoracic, and lumbosacral. Injury to the cervical area usually leads to partial or full paralysis, loss of breathing, loss of function at biceps, shoulders, wrists, and/or hands. Complete injuries at the thoracic level cause paralysis and inability to control abdominal muscles with functions of the upper limbs unaffected. Injuries to the lumbosacral region lead to reduced control of the legs, hips, urinary system, and anus. Clinical Incidence and Epidemiology In the United States alone approximately 273,000 people are estimated to have SCIs, with over 12,000 new cases reported each year. SCI primarily affects young adults between the ages of 16 and 30. Overall, 80.7% of the injuries reported have occurred in males with a slight trend toward a decreasing percentage of males. Of SCI individuals with paraplegia or tetraplegia, less than 1% achieve complete neurological recovery post treatment. Over the last 20 years, the percentage of persons with incomplete tetraplegia has increased. Patients with SCI experience decreased lifespan and life-costs from 1 to 4 million dollars, depending on the severity of injury. Life expectancies for patients with SCI have not improved since the 1980s with the leading cause of death being renal failure in the past years. CNS injuries are devastating for the patients and their families, especially when
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