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Neocortex Cell Types

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The density of the cell types of the neocortex is varied from layer to layer. The main types of cells in the cerebral cortex are the pyramidal, granular and fusiform neurons. Martinotti and horizontal type cells are fewer than others.
Molecular layer I is, also called plexiform layer, located closest to the pial surface of the brain. This layer has few neuron bodies. It contains many nuclei which belong to glia cells, myelinated fibers and few neurons of granular and horizontal neurons of Cajal.It consists almost all axonal and dendritic branching.
External granular layer II is known as an outer granular layer, contains small granular(Golgi type II cells) and pyramidal neurons. Granular type neurons divided into two distinct types. One is Golgi type II. It has short axons that reach close to neuron body. The Golgi type I has long axons that reach far from the body. Its axons go up to the cortical surface where it can make various axonal and dendritic connections.
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Also, there are some Martinotti(triangular or polygonal shaped multipolar neurons) and granular neurons. Afferent fibers projecting from the thalamus, corticocortical connections come to here and IV layer. These synapses both efferent cortical neurons and intercortical( granular, Martinotti and horizontal types)neurons.
Internal granular layer IV mainly consists of Golgi type II and some small pyramidal neurons. It is an input layer with the layer II and receives inputs from the thalamus and other regions of
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