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Niacin And Vitamin B12 Metabolic Importance

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Niacin and Vitamin B12 Metabolic importance

Vitamins are chemically unrelated organic compounds which can be used in many metabolic process. The vitamin B complex are water soluble vitamins that are needed to form the coenzymes or enzymes in metabolic pathways. Niacin is used to produce NAD+ which is used in cellular respiration and NADP+ used in the pentose phosphate pathway and would lead to someone developing pellagra. Additionally, vitamin B12 is used to form cofactors required in the conversion of homocysteine to methionine an amino acid needed in the protein synthesis. Also in the isomerization of methylmalonyl-CoA to Succinyl-CoA, an intermediate in the TCA cycle, and a deficiency can lead to the development of pernicious anemia
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The product of the reactions is fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. These steps in the glycolytic pathway are needed for the glucose to stay in the cell. Additionally, the fructose 1,6- bisphosphate is easy to convert to phosphorylated three-carbon units. The second part of the glycolysis involves the conversion of the fructose 1,6-bisphosphate into two different three carbon units which interconvert easily. In the third part, the three carbon units are converted to pyruvate and there is a net production of two ATP. In the citric acid cycle, the is a net production of 6 NADH molecules which can be used in the electron transport chain. The NADH is produced by four Oxidation-reduction reactions where three pairs of electrons are transferred to NAD+ and one pair to FAD (Ferrier, 2014).

Taken from- Biochemistry 5th edition
Fig 1- glycolysis
The diagram shows the metabolic process of glycolysis where glucose is trapped in the cell then converted to three carbon carbohydrates and lastly ATP is produced. There is a net production of 2 ATP in glycolysis .Two NAD+ act as hydrogen acceptors to produce 2 NADH to be used in the electron transport chain(Berg et.al , 2002).

Taken from- biochemistry 5th edition
Fig 2- citric acid cycle
This diagram shows the citric acid cycle where 6 NADH molecules are produced from NAD+ acting as a hydrogen acceptors. The product of
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